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Significantly longer envelope V2 loops are characteristic of heterosexually transmitted subtype B HIV-1 in Trinidad.

Collins-Fairclough AM, Charurat M, Nadai Y, Pando M, Avila MM, Blattner WA, Carr JK - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: HIV-1B obtained from Trinidadian heterosexuals soon after seroconversion had significantly longer V2 loops with one more glycosylation site, shorter V3 loops and no significant difference in V1 or V4 when compared to HIV-1B obtained soon after seroconversion from infected individuals in the rest of the world.A threonine deletion at position 319 (T319-) along with the substitutions R315K and S440R were found to be distinctly associated with HIV-1B from Trinidad compared to HIV-1B globally.This finding of distinctive genetic features that are characteristic of HIV-1B strains from Trinidad is consistent with the Trinidad epidemic being established by a founder strain or closely related founder strains of HIV-1B.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biology Division, Faculty of Science and Sport, University of Technology, Kingston, Jamaica. aneishacollins@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: In Trinidad and the wider Caribbean, subtype B Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV-1B) overwhelmingly accounts for HIV infection among heterosexuals; this contrasts with the association of HIV-1B with homosexual transmission and injecting drug use globally. The HIV envelope contains genetic determinants of cell tropism and evasion from immune attack. In this study we investigate the genetic properties of the env V1-C4 of HIV-1B soon after transmission to Trinidadian heterosexuals. This will reveal distinctive genetic features of the strains that cause the HIV-1B epidemic in Trinidad and generate insights to better understand their properties.

Methodology/principal findings: Quasispecies sampling was performed on the env V1-C4 of HIV-1B strains soon after transmission to heterosexual Trinidadians in a cohort of seroconverters. Phylogenetic relationships were determined for these quasispecies and the length and number of asparagine (N) linked glycosylation sites (NLGS) in their variable loops compared to that for HIV-1B globally. Signature amino acids within the constant domains of the env V1-C4 were identified for heterosexually transmitted HIV-1B from Trinidad relative to HIV-1B globally. HIV-1B obtained from Trinidadian heterosexuals soon after seroconversion had significantly longer V2 loops with one more glycosylation site, shorter V3 loops and no significant difference in V1 or V4 when compared to HIV-1B obtained soon after seroconversion from infected individuals in the rest of the world. HIV-1B soon after seroconversion and during chronic infection of Trinidadians was not significantly different, suggesting that distinctly long V2 loops are characteristic of HIV-1B in Trinidad. A threonine deletion at position 319 (T319-) along with the substitutions R315K and S440R were found to be distinctly associated with HIV-1B from Trinidad compared to HIV-1B globally.

Conclusions: This finding of distinctive genetic features that are characteristic of HIV-1B strains from Trinidad is consistent with the Trinidad epidemic being established by a founder strain or closely related founder strains of HIV-1B.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogeny of subtype B HIV-1 from Trinidad.Phylogeny was inferred using the neighbour-joining algorithm and is based on env V1-V4.
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pone-0019995-g002: Phylogeny of subtype B HIV-1 from Trinidad.Phylogeny was inferred using the neighbour-joining algorithm and is based on env V1-V4.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all sequences obtained were subtype B and they were all predicted to use the CCR5 coreceptor based on V3 analysis. HIGHLIGHTER and phylogenetic analysis of the quasispecies isolated indicate that a single founder variant infected 7 of the 8 Argentinians and 14 of the 19 Trinidadians, while the remaining patients were infected by two or more founder variants. Recombinant quasispecies were detected in 3 of the 5 Trinidadians who were infected by 2 or more founder variants (Table 1). The sequences from each recent seroconverter formed distinct clusters with strong bootstrap suppport (>95%) with the exception of one Argentinian patient (AR101815). The sequences from AR101815 formed two non-neighbouring clusters on the phylogenetic tree (Figure 1), suggesting that patient AR101815 was infected by two distantly related strains. Intrapatient nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.06%–9.4% (0.06%–0.48%, if AR101815 is excluded) for the recent Argentinian seroconverters and 0.04%–1.13% for the recent Trinidadian seroconverters. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the env V1-C4 sequences of HIV-1B from 46 Trinidadians (19 from this study and 27 sequences from the Los Alamos Database) along with randomly choosen HIV-1B sequences from other Caribbean territories and the rest of the world. Only one representative sequence from each of the 46 Trinidadians was included in the analysis and represents all available env V1-C4 sequences from HIV-1B infected Trinidadian heterosexuals. With the exception of a cluster that contained 13 Trinidad HIV-1B strains and had 98% bootstrap support, the phylogenetic tree generated showed no clustering based on territory (Figure 2). The cluster of 13 Trinidad viruses consists of 10 acute sequences and 3 prevalent sequences. Of the ten acute viruses 7 were previously reported to form a subcluster within Trinidad viruses [4].


Significantly longer envelope V2 loops are characteristic of heterosexually transmitted subtype B HIV-1 in Trinidad.

Collins-Fairclough AM, Charurat M, Nadai Y, Pando M, Avila MM, Blattner WA, Carr JK - PLoS ONE (2011)

Phylogeny of subtype B HIV-1 from Trinidad.Phylogeny was inferred using the neighbour-joining algorithm and is based on env V1-V4.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117786&req=5

pone-0019995-g002: Phylogeny of subtype B HIV-1 from Trinidad.Phylogeny was inferred using the neighbour-joining algorithm and is based on env V1-V4.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all sequences obtained were subtype B and they were all predicted to use the CCR5 coreceptor based on V3 analysis. HIGHLIGHTER and phylogenetic analysis of the quasispecies isolated indicate that a single founder variant infected 7 of the 8 Argentinians and 14 of the 19 Trinidadians, while the remaining patients were infected by two or more founder variants. Recombinant quasispecies were detected in 3 of the 5 Trinidadians who were infected by 2 or more founder variants (Table 1). The sequences from each recent seroconverter formed distinct clusters with strong bootstrap suppport (>95%) with the exception of one Argentinian patient (AR101815). The sequences from AR101815 formed two non-neighbouring clusters on the phylogenetic tree (Figure 1), suggesting that patient AR101815 was infected by two distantly related strains. Intrapatient nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.06%–9.4% (0.06%–0.48%, if AR101815 is excluded) for the recent Argentinian seroconverters and 0.04%–1.13% for the recent Trinidadian seroconverters. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the env V1-C4 sequences of HIV-1B from 46 Trinidadians (19 from this study and 27 sequences from the Los Alamos Database) along with randomly choosen HIV-1B sequences from other Caribbean territories and the rest of the world. Only one representative sequence from each of the 46 Trinidadians was included in the analysis and represents all available env V1-C4 sequences from HIV-1B infected Trinidadian heterosexuals. With the exception of a cluster that contained 13 Trinidad HIV-1B strains and had 98% bootstrap support, the phylogenetic tree generated showed no clustering based on territory (Figure 2). The cluster of 13 Trinidad viruses consists of 10 acute sequences and 3 prevalent sequences. Of the ten acute viruses 7 were previously reported to form a subcluster within Trinidad viruses [4].

Bottom Line: HIV-1B obtained from Trinidadian heterosexuals soon after seroconversion had significantly longer V2 loops with one more glycosylation site, shorter V3 loops and no significant difference in V1 or V4 when compared to HIV-1B obtained soon after seroconversion from infected individuals in the rest of the world.A threonine deletion at position 319 (T319-) along with the substitutions R315K and S440R were found to be distinctly associated with HIV-1B from Trinidad compared to HIV-1B globally.This finding of distinctive genetic features that are characteristic of HIV-1B strains from Trinidad is consistent with the Trinidad epidemic being established by a founder strain or closely related founder strains of HIV-1B.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biology Division, Faculty of Science and Sport, University of Technology, Kingston, Jamaica. aneishacollins@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: In Trinidad and the wider Caribbean, subtype B Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV-1B) overwhelmingly accounts for HIV infection among heterosexuals; this contrasts with the association of HIV-1B with homosexual transmission and injecting drug use globally. The HIV envelope contains genetic determinants of cell tropism and evasion from immune attack. In this study we investigate the genetic properties of the env V1-C4 of HIV-1B soon after transmission to Trinidadian heterosexuals. This will reveal distinctive genetic features of the strains that cause the HIV-1B epidemic in Trinidad and generate insights to better understand their properties.

Methodology/principal findings: Quasispecies sampling was performed on the env V1-C4 of HIV-1B strains soon after transmission to heterosexual Trinidadians in a cohort of seroconverters. Phylogenetic relationships were determined for these quasispecies and the length and number of asparagine (N) linked glycosylation sites (NLGS) in their variable loops compared to that for HIV-1B globally. Signature amino acids within the constant domains of the env V1-C4 were identified for heterosexually transmitted HIV-1B from Trinidad relative to HIV-1B globally. HIV-1B obtained from Trinidadian heterosexuals soon after seroconversion had significantly longer V2 loops with one more glycosylation site, shorter V3 loops and no significant difference in V1 or V4 when compared to HIV-1B obtained soon after seroconversion from infected individuals in the rest of the world. HIV-1B soon after seroconversion and during chronic infection of Trinidadians was not significantly different, suggesting that distinctly long V2 loops are characteristic of HIV-1B in Trinidad. A threonine deletion at position 319 (T319-) along with the substitutions R315K and S440R were found to be distinctly associated with HIV-1B from Trinidad compared to HIV-1B globally.

Conclusions: This finding of distinctive genetic features that are characteristic of HIV-1B strains from Trinidad is consistent with the Trinidad epidemic being established by a founder strain or closely related founder strains of HIV-1B.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus