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Emergent processes in cognitive-emotional interactions.

Pessoa L - Dialogues Clin Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior.First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula.Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. lpessoa@indiana.edu

ABSTRACT
Emotion and cognition have been viewed as largely separate entities in the brain. Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior. Research in the past two decades, however, has started to paint a different picture of brain organization, one in which network interactions are key to understanding complex behaviors. From both basic and clinical perspectives, the characterization of cognitive-emotional interactions constitutes a fundamental issue in the investigation of the mind and brain. This review will highlight the interactive and integrative potential that exists in the brain to bring together the cognitive and emotional domains. First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

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Interactions between emotion and cognition. The anterior nsula and the anterior cingulate cortex are important sites nvolved in determining affective significance and value. In so doing, they are closely affiliated with an extended set of regions, some of which are shown here in the orange ellipse The anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex interact closely with the lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in several cognitive functions. In this manner, cognitive-emotional interactions occur during complex behaviors. Notably, these interactions can be either beneficial or detrimental to behavior. In the latter case, for instance, when threat level is high, resources required for cognitive operations are partly consumed, thereby compromising behavioral performance ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; Amyg, amygdala; Ant insula, anterior insula; BF, basal forebrain; Hyp, hypothalamus; LPFC, lateral prefrontal cortex
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DialoguesClinNeurosci-12-433-g005: Interactions between emotion and cognition. The anterior nsula and the anterior cingulate cortex are important sites nvolved in determining affective significance and value. In so doing, they are closely affiliated with an extended set of regions, some of which are shown here in the orange ellipse The anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex interact closely with the lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in several cognitive functions. In this manner, cognitive-emotional interactions occur during complex behaviors. Notably, these interactions can be either beneficial or detrimental to behavior. In the latter case, for instance, when threat level is high, resources required for cognitive operations are partly consumed, thereby compromising behavioral performance ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; Amyg, amygdala; Ant insula, anterior insula; BF, basal forebrain; Hyp, hypothalamus; LPFC, lateral prefrontal cortex

Mentions: What are some of the neural substrates of the interactions between emotion and cognition? When items are high in threat, robust interactions between affective processing and executive functions are proposed to take place via several neural mechanisms. First, it is hypothesized that threat processing engages attentional/effortful control mechanisms in several frontoparietal sites, including lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and parietal cortex. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex may be particularly important because of its role in integrating inputs from multiple sources, including cognitive, affective and motivational inputs117(Figure 5). In cognitive studies, the anterior cingulate has been suggested to be involved in conflict detection, error likelihood processing, and error monitoring, among other functions. Anterior cingulate engagement during threat may impair executive function because shared resources required to prioritize threat processing are recruited. In other words, anterior cingulate sites engaged by high-threat are at the intersection of the esources needed for several executive functions (as indicated by the orange region in Figure 4). Notably, the anterior cingulate engagement includes the dorsal sector, in contrast to the idea that the dorsalanterior cingulate is involved in cognitive function, in opposition to the more rostral, “emotional” sector.118


Emergent processes in cognitive-emotional interactions.

Pessoa L - Dialogues Clin Neurosci (2010)

Interactions between emotion and cognition. The anterior nsula and the anterior cingulate cortex are important sites nvolved in determining affective significance and value. In so doing, they are closely affiliated with an extended set of regions, some of which are shown here in the orange ellipse The anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex interact closely with the lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in several cognitive functions. In this manner, cognitive-emotional interactions occur during complex behaviors. Notably, these interactions can be either beneficial or detrimental to behavior. In the latter case, for instance, when threat level is high, resources required for cognitive operations are partly consumed, thereby compromising behavioral performance ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; Amyg, amygdala; Ant insula, anterior insula; BF, basal forebrain; Hyp, hypothalamus; LPFC, lateral prefrontal cortex
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117594&req=5

DialoguesClinNeurosci-12-433-g005: Interactions between emotion and cognition. The anterior nsula and the anterior cingulate cortex are important sites nvolved in determining affective significance and value. In so doing, they are closely affiliated with an extended set of regions, some of which are shown here in the orange ellipse The anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex interact closely with the lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in several cognitive functions. In this manner, cognitive-emotional interactions occur during complex behaviors. Notably, these interactions can be either beneficial or detrimental to behavior. In the latter case, for instance, when threat level is high, resources required for cognitive operations are partly consumed, thereby compromising behavioral performance ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; Amyg, amygdala; Ant insula, anterior insula; BF, basal forebrain; Hyp, hypothalamus; LPFC, lateral prefrontal cortex
Mentions: What are some of the neural substrates of the interactions between emotion and cognition? When items are high in threat, robust interactions between affective processing and executive functions are proposed to take place via several neural mechanisms. First, it is hypothesized that threat processing engages attentional/effortful control mechanisms in several frontoparietal sites, including lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and parietal cortex. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex may be particularly important because of its role in integrating inputs from multiple sources, including cognitive, affective and motivational inputs117(Figure 5). In cognitive studies, the anterior cingulate has been suggested to be involved in conflict detection, error likelihood processing, and error monitoring, among other functions. Anterior cingulate engagement during threat may impair executive function because shared resources required to prioritize threat processing are recruited. In other words, anterior cingulate sites engaged by high-threat are at the intersection of the esources needed for several executive functions (as indicated by the orange region in Figure 4). Notably, the anterior cingulate engagement includes the dorsal sector, in contrast to the idea that the dorsalanterior cingulate is involved in cognitive function, in opposition to the more rostral, “emotional” sector.118

Bottom Line: Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior.First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula.Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. lpessoa@indiana.edu

ABSTRACT
Emotion and cognition have been viewed as largely separate entities in the brain. Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior. Research in the past two decades, however, has started to paint a different picture of brain organization, one in which network interactions are key to understanding complex behaviors. From both basic and clinical perspectives, the characterization of cognitive-emotional interactions constitutes a fundamental issue in the investigation of the mind and brain. This review will highlight the interactive and integrative potential that exists in the brain to bring together the cognitive and emotional domains. First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

Show MeSH