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Emergent processes in cognitive-emotional interactions.

Pessoa L - Dialogues Clin Neurosci (2010)

Bottom Line: Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior.First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula.Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. lpessoa@indiana.edu

ABSTRACT
Emotion and cognition have been viewed as largely separate entities in the brain. Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior. Research in the past two decades, however, has started to paint a different picture of brain organization, one in which network interactions are key to understanding complex behaviors. From both basic and clinical perspectives, the characterization of cognitive-emotional interactions constitutes a fundamental issue in the investigation of the mind and brain. This review will highlight the interactive and integrative potential that exists in the brain to bring together the cognitive and emotional domains. First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

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Interactions between emotion and perception. (A) Visual processing is suggested to be modulated by affective value via several mechanisms, including those involving projections from the amygdala, basal forebrain, orbitofrontal cortex, and possibly hypothalamus (not shown). (B) Another class of modulatory mechanisms relies on interactions between “evaluative” sites (shown in color) and “control” sites (shown in white), the latter located in frontoparietal cortex and known to exert top-down influences on visual processing. Dotted ines indicate possibly indirect connections. All locations are approximate, and the positions of the amygdala, basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and pulvinar are shown on the latera surface for schematic purposes. A, amygdala; BF, basal forebrain; FEF, frontal eye field; Hyp, hypothalamus; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; Pul, pulvinar.
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DialoguesClinNeurosci-12-433-g003: Interactions between emotion and perception. (A) Visual processing is suggested to be modulated by affective value via several mechanisms, including those involving projections from the amygdala, basal forebrain, orbitofrontal cortex, and possibly hypothalamus (not shown). (B) Another class of modulatory mechanisms relies on interactions between “evaluative” sites (shown in color) and “control” sites (shown in white), the latter located in frontoparietal cortex and known to exert top-down influences on visual processing. Dotted ines indicate possibly indirect connections. All locations are approximate, and the positions of the amygdala, basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and pulvinar are shown on the latera surface for schematic purposes. A, amygdala; BF, basal forebrain; FEF, frontal eye field; Hyp, hypothalamus; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; Pul, pulvinar.

Mentions: Perceptual competition, which takes place in visual cortex, is affected by emotional content. As discussed, the amygdala is well positioned to implement the enhancement of visual activity given that its efferents reach multiple levels of the visual cortex, including primary visual cortex.23 Although the role of the amygdala in the modulation of visual processing is often emphasized in the literature, several other mechanisms likely play important roles, too.100 A second modulatory source may involve the orbitofrontal cortex20(Figure 3A), a structure that has important roles in the evaluation of sensory stimuli.101 The orbitofrontal cortex is reciprocally interconnected with visual cortex, especially the more anterior portions of the ventral stream,12,102 and is thus capable of influencing evoked responses in visual cortex based on affective value.


Emergent processes in cognitive-emotional interactions.

Pessoa L - Dialogues Clin Neurosci (2010)

Interactions between emotion and perception. (A) Visual processing is suggested to be modulated by affective value via several mechanisms, including those involving projections from the amygdala, basal forebrain, orbitofrontal cortex, and possibly hypothalamus (not shown). (B) Another class of modulatory mechanisms relies on interactions between “evaluative” sites (shown in color) and “control” sites (shown in white), the latter located in frontoparietal cortex and known to exert top-down influences on visual processing. Dotted ines indicate possibly indirect connections. All locations are approximate, and the positions of the amygdala, basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and pulvinar are shown on the latera surface for schematic purposes. A, amygdala; BF, basal forebrain; FEF, frontal eye field; Hyp, hypothalamus; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; Pul, pulvinar.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117594&req=5

DialoguesClinNeurosci-12-433-g003: Interactions between emotion and perception. (A) Visual processing is suggested to be modulated by affective value via several mechanisms, including those involving projections from the amygdala, basal forebrain, orbitofrontal cortex, and possibly hypothalamus (not shown). (B) Another class of modulatory mechanisms relies on interactions between “evaluative” sites (shown in color) and “control” sites (shown in white), the latter located in frontoparietal cortex and known to exert top-down influences on visual processing. Dotted ines indicate possibly indirect connections. All locations are approximate, and the positions of the amygdala, basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and pulvinar are shown on the latera surface for schematic purposes. A, amygdala; BF, basal forebrain; FEF, frontal eye field; Hyp, hypothalamus; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; Pul, pulvinar.
Mentions: Perceptual competition, which takes place in visual cortex, is affected by emotional content. As discussed, the amygdala is well positioned to implement the enhancement of visual activity given that its efferents reach multiple levels of the visual cortex, including primary visual cortex.23 Although the role of the amygdala in the modulation of visual processing is often emphasized in the literature, several other mechanisms likely play important roles, too.100 A second modulatory source may involve the orbitofrontal cortex20(Figure 3A), a structure that has important roles in the evaluation of sensory stimuli.101 The orbitofrontal cortex is reciprocally interconnected with visual cortex, especially the more anterior portions of the ventral stream,12,102 and is thus capable of influencing evoked responses in visual cortex based on affective value.

Bottom Line: Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior.First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula.Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. lpessoa@indiana.edu

ABSTRACT
Emotion and cognition have been viewed as largely separate entities in the brain. Within this framework, significant progress has been made in understanding specific aspects of behavior. Research in the past two decades, however, has started to paint a different picture of brain organization, one in which network interactions are key to understanding complex behaviors. From both basic and clinical perspectives, the characterization of cognitive-emotional interactions constitutes a fundamental issue in the investigation of the mind and brain. This review will highlight the interactive and integrative potential that exists in the brain to bring together the cognitive and emotional domains. First, anatomical evidence will be provided, focusing on structures such as hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. Data on functional interactions will then be discussed, followed by a discussion of a dual competition framework, which describes cognitive-emotional interactions in terms of perceptual and cognitive competition mechanisms.

Show MeSH