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Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs.

Lele RD - J Ayurveda Integr Med (2010)

Bottom Line: The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated.Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda's concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda's aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear.Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lilavati Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai, India.

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930's, and Vakhil's historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda's concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda's aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The NFKB signaling pathway
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Figure 0003: The NFKB signaling pathway

Mentions: At that time, not much was known about the key role of NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) as a regulator of host inflammatory and immune response and cellular growth [Figures 2 and 3]. Agarwal and Singh’s excellent review of Indian medicinal plants as immunomodulators (1999) makes no mention of the NF-kB pathway.[8] NF-kB increases the expression of specific cellular genes encoding at least 27 different cytokines and chemokines, receptors involved in immune recognition such as members of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins involved in antigen presentation, and receptors required for neutrophil adhesion and migration. Cytokines stimulated by NF-kB, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, also directly activate NF-kB pathways, thus establishing a positive autoregulatory loop amplifying the inflammatory response and increasing the duration of chronic inflammation.[10] NF-kB also stimulates the expression of enzymes whose products contribute to the pathogenesis of the inflammatory process, e.g., inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which generates nitric oxide (NO), and cyclooxygenase - 2 (COX-2), which generates prostanoids [Figure 4].Figure 2


Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs.

Lele RD - J Ayurveda Integr Med (2010)

The NFKB signaling pathway
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117317&req=5

Figure 0003: The NFKB signaling pathway
Mentions: At that time, not much was known about the key role of NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) as a regulator of host inflammatory and immune response and cellular growth [Figures 2 and 3]. Agarwal and Singh’s excellent review of Indian medicinal plants as immunomodulators (1999) makes no mention of the NF-kB pathway.[8] NF-kB increases the expression of specific cellular genes encoding at least 27 different cytokines and chemokines, receptors involved in immune recognition such as members of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins involved in antigen presentation, and receptors required for neutrophil adhesion and migration. Cytokines stimulated by NF-kB, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, also directly activate NF-kB pathways, thus establishing a positive autoregulatory loop amplifying the inflammatory response and increasing the duration of chronic inflammation.[10] NF-kB also stimulates the expression of enzymes whose products contribute to the pathogenesis of the inflammatory process, e.g., inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which generates nitric oxide (NO), and cyclooxygenase - 2 (COX-2), which generates prostanoids [Figure 4].Figure 2

Bottom Line: The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated.Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda's concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda's aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear.Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lilavati Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai, India.

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930's, and Vakhil's historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda's concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda's aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus