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Functional polymers in protein detection platforms: optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic biosensors.

Hahm JI - Sensors (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability.Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category.The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, 37th & O Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20057, USA. jh583@georgetown.edu

ABSTRACT
The rapidly growing field of proteomics and related applied sectors in the life sciences demands convenient methodologies for detecting and measuring the levels of specific proteins as well as for screening and analyzing for interacting protein systems. Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability. Polymers can satisfy many of these requirements and are often considered as choice materials in various biological detection platforms. Therefore, tremendous research efforts have been made for developing new polymers both in macroscopic and nanoscopic length scales as well as applying existing polymeric materials for protein measurements. In this review article, both conventional and alternative techniques for protein detection are overviewed while focusing on the use of various polymeric materials in different protein sensing technologies. Among many available detection mechanisms, most common approaches such as optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic methods are comprehensively discussed in this article. Desired properties of polymers exploited for each type of protein detection approach are summarized. Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category. Difficulties facing both quantitative and qualitative protein measurements are also identified. The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements. Finally, future research directions towards further advancements in the field are considered.

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Two-dimensional diblock copolymer templates of PS-b-PVP and protein assembly behavior observed on them; (a) various nanoscale templates resulting from chemical modification of nanodomains in micellar-forming diblock copolymers, (b and c) immunoglobulin G molecules on (b) open and (c) reverted PS-b-PVP templates, and (d) mushroom tyrosinase molecules assembled on a reverted PS-b-PVP template. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) scan size in panels (b) through (d) corresponds to (b): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm, and (c and d): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm. Adapted with permission from [100].
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f5-sensors-11-03327: Two-dimensional diblock copolymer templates of PS-b-PVP and protein assembly behavior observed on them; (a) various nanoscale templates resulting from chemical modification of nanodomains in micellar-forming diblock copolymers, (b and c) immunoglobulin G molecules on (b) open and (c) reverted PS-b-PVP templates, and (d) mushroom tyrosinase molecules assembled on a reverted PS-b-PVP template. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) scan size in panels (b) through (d) corresponds to (b): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm, and (c and d): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm. Adapted with permission from [100].

Mentions: Recently, preferential interaction of several model proteins with PS and their selective segregation on the PS regions were monitored on the surface of phase-separated, PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymer ultrathin films [97,99]. In addition to these methods for arranging proteins with one-dimensional control over repeat spacing, spatial control over two dimensions was accomplished by using micelle-forming diblock copolymers. Polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-PVP) was effectively used for the self-assembly of surface-bound, two-dimensional, nanoscale protein arrays [100]. A straightforward method to produce protein patterns of different geometries and sizes study was also established in the same study by manipulating topological structures of the underlying PS-b-PVP templates via various chemical treatments. Figures 4 and 5 display various nanodomain templates in diblock copolymers and the characteristic protein assembly behavior on such templates of PS-b-PMMA and PS-b-PVP ultrathin films, respectively.


Functional polymers in protein detection platforms: optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic biosensors.

Hahm JI - Sensors (Basel) (2011)

Two-dimensional diblock copolymer templates of PS-b-PVP and protein assembly behavior observed on them; (a) various nanoscale templates resulting from chemical modification of nanodomains in micellar-forming diblock copolymers, (b and c) immunoglobulin G molecules on (b) open and (c) reverted PS-b-PVP templates, and (d) mushroom tyrosinase molecules assembled on a reverted PS-b-PVP template. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) scan size in panels (b) through (d) corresponds to (b): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm, and (c and d): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm. Adapted with permission from [100].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117287&req=5

f5-sensors-11-03327: Two-dimensional diblock copolymer templates of PS-b-PVP and protein assembly behavior observed on them; (a) various nanoscale templates resulting from chemical modification of nanodomains in micellar-forming diblock copolymers, (b and c) immunoglobulin G molecules on (b) open and (c) reverted PS-b-PVP templates, and (d) mushroom tyrosinase molecules assembled on a reverted PS-b-PVP template. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) scan size in panels (b) through (d) corresponds to (b): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm, and (c and d): (2) 300 × 300 nm, (3) 180 × 180 nm. Adapted with permission from [100].
Mentions: Recently, preferential interaction of several model proteins with PS and their selective segregation on the PS regions were monitored on the surface of phase-separated, PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymer ultrathin films [97,99]. In addition to these methods for arranging proteins with one-dimensional control over repeat spacing, spatial control over two dimensions was accomplished by using micelle-forming diblock copolymers. Polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-PVP) was effectively used for the self-assembly of surface-bound, two-dimensional, nanoscale protein arrays [100]. A straightforward method to produce protein patterns of different geometries and sizes study was also established in the same study by manipulating topological structures of the underlying PS-b-PVP templates via various chemical treatments. Figures 4 and 5 display various nanodomain templates in diblock copolymers and the characteristic protein assembly behavior on such templates of PS-b-PMMA and PS-b-PVP ultrathin films, respectively.

Bottom Line: Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability.Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category.The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, 37th & O Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20057, USA. jh583@georgetown.edu

ABSTRACT
The rapidly growing field of proteomics and related applied sectors in the life sciences demands convenient methodologies for detecting and measuring the levels of specific proteins as well as for screening and analyzing for interacting protein systems. Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability. Polymers can satisfy many of these requirements and are often considered as choice materials in various biological detection platforms. Therefore, tremendous research efforts have been made for developing new polymers both in macroscopic and nanoscopic length scales as well as applying existing polymeric materials for protein measurements. In this review article, both conventional and alternative techniques for protein detection are overviewed while focusing on the use of various polymeric materials in different protein sensing technologies. Among many available detection mechanisms, most common approaches such as optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic methods are comprehensively discussed in this article. Desired properties of polymers exploited for each type of protein detection approach are summarized. Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category. Difficulties facing both quantitative and qualitative protein measurements are also identified. The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements. Finally, future research directions towards further advancements in the field are considered.

Show MeSH