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Functional polymers in protein detection platforms: optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic biosensors.

Hahm JI - Sensors (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability.Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category.The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, 37th & O Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20057, USA. jh583@georgetown.edu

ABSTRACT
The rapidly growing field of proteomics and related applied sectors in the life sciences demands convenient methodologies for detecting and measuring the levels of specific proteins as well as for screening and analyzing for interacting protein systems. Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability. Polymers can satisfy many of these requirements and are often considered as choice materials in various biological detection platforms. Therefore, tremendous research efforts have been made for developing new polymers both in macroscopic and nanoscopic length scales as well as applying existing polymeric materials for protein measurements. In this review article, both conventional and alternative techniques for protein detection are overviewed while focusing on the use of various polymeric materials in different protein sensing technologies. Among many available detection mechanisms, most common approaches such as optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic methods are comprehensively discussed in this article. Desired properties of polymers exploited for each type of protein detection approach are summarized. Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category. Difficulties facing both quantitative and qualitative protein measurements are also identified. The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements. Finally, future research directions towards further advancements in the field are considered.

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Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) and conducting polymers (CPs). (a) An electrochemical protein sensor employing a MIP and (b) typical examples of CPs. Adapted with permission from [80] and [81].
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f2-sensors-11-03327: Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) and conducting polymers (CPs). (a) An electrochemical protein sensor employing a MIP and (b) typical examples of CPs. Adapted with permission from [80] and [81].

Mentions: When choosing polymers for protein detection, multiple factors such as biocompatibility and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity are carefully considered for the specific need in each application. Two main reasons for applying polymers in various protein detection systems are to increase specificity and sensitivity. For example, some polymers [82–84] have been frequently employed to provide an additional layer for promoting protein adsorption and for increasing protein stability on various sensor surfaces. On the other hand, other polymers have been used as inhibition layers to suppress nonspecific protein adsorption on sensors [85–87]. Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) are applied to the electrochemical detection of proteins in order to increase biomolecular selectivity. They permit the creation of specific protein recognition sites in synthetic polymers through template molecule-assisted copolymerization of functional monomers. When the template molecules are removed from the polymer, complementary binding sites to subsequent template molecules are constructed in the polymer [88,89]. Figure 2(a) is one such example of MIP protein sensors. Conducting polymers (CPs), a group of polymers exhibiting good electrical conductivity (10−11 to 103 S/cm with a carrier concentration ranging between 1012 and 1019/cm3), have been used to increase the detection sensitivity of protein detection systems such as FETs [11,81,90,91]. Figure 2(b) displays typical examples of CPs. The following section overviews various use of polymeric materials in each area of protein detection, with an emphasis on their role to increase selectivity and sensitivity of desired measurements. Table 2 classifies various polymers used in protein detection according to their assorted properties and relevance in each detection category.


Functional polymers in protein detection platforms: optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic biosensors.

Hahm JI - Sensors (Basel) (2011)

Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) and conducting polymers (CPs). (a) An electrochemical protein sensor employing a MIP and (b) typical examples of CPs. Adapted with permission from [80] and [81].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117287&req=5

f2-sensors-11-03327: Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) and conducting polymers (CPs). (a) An electrochemical protein sensor employing a MIP and (b) typical examples of CPs. Adapted with permission from [80] and [81].
Mentions: When choosing polymers for protein detection, multiple factors such as biocompatibility and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity are carefully considered for the specific need in each application. Two main reasons for applying polymers in various protein detection systems are to increase specificity and sensitivity. For example, some polymers [82–84] have been frequently employed to provide an additional layer for promoting protein adsorption and for increasing protein stability on various sensor surfaces. On the other hand, other polymers have been used as inhibition layers to suppress nonspecific protein adsorption on sensors [85–87]. Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) are applied to the electrochemical detection of proteins in order to increase biomolecular selectivity. They permit the creation of specific protein recognition sites in synthetic polymers through template molecule-assisted copolymerization of functional monomers. When the template molecules are removed from the polymer, complementary binding sites to subsequent template molecules are constructed in the polymer [88,89]. Figure 2(a) is one such example of MIP protein sensors. Conducting polymers (CPs), a group of polymers exhibiting good electrical conductivity (10−11 to 103 S/cm with a carrier concentration ranging between 1012 and 1019/cm3), have been used to increase the detection sensitivity of protein detection systems such as FETs [11,81,90,91]. Figure 2(b) displays typical examples of CPs. The following section overviews various use of polymeric materials in each area of protein detection, with an emphasis on their role to increase selectivity and sensitivity of desired measurements. Table 2 classifies various polymers used in protein detection according to their assorted properties and relevance in each detection category.

Bottom Line: Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability.Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category.The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, 37th & O Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20057, USA. jh583@georgetown.edu

ABSTRACT
The rapidly growing field of proteomics and related applied sectors in the life sciences demands convenient methodologies for detecting and measuring the levels of specific proteins as well as for screening and analyzing for interacting protein systems. Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability. Polymers can satisfy many of these requirements and are often considered as choice materials in various biological detection platforms. Therefore, tremendous research efforts have been made for developing new polymers both in macroscopic and nanoscopic length scales as well as applying existing polymeric materials for protein measurements. In this review article, both conventional and alternative techniques for protein detection are overviewed while focusing on the use of various polymeric materials in different protein sensing technologies. Among many available detection mechanisms, most common approaches such as optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic methods are comprehensively discussed in this article. Desired properties of polymers exploited for each type of protein detection approach are summarized. Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category. Difficulties facing both quantitative and qualitative protein measurements are also identified. The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements. Finally, future research directions towards further advancements in the field are considered.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus