Limits...
Conformationally constrained histidines in the design of peptidomimetics: strategies for the χ-space control.

Stefanucci A, Pinnen F, Feliciani F, Cacciatore I, Lucente G, Mollica A - Int J Mol Sci (2011)

Bottom Line: A successful design of peptidomimetics must come to terms with χ-space control.Structural modifications leading to cyclic imino derivatives such as spinacine, aza-histidine and analogues with shortening or elongation of the native side chain (nor-histidine and homo-histidine, respectively) are also described.Examples of the use of the described analogues to replace native histidine in bioactive peptides are also given.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara "G. d'Annunzio", Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

ABSTRACT
A successful design of peptidomimetics must come to terms with χ-space control. The incorporation of χ-space constrained amino acids into bioactive peptides renders the χ(1) and χ(2) torsional angles of pharmacophore amino acids critical for activity and selectivity as with other relevant structural features of the template. This review describes histidine analogues characterized by replacement of native α and/or β-hydrogen atoms with alkyl substituents as well as analogues with α, β-didehydro unsaturation or C(α)-C(β) cyclopropane insertion (ACC derivatives). Attention is also dedicated to the relevant field of β-aminoacid chemistry by describing the synthesis of β(2)- and β(3)-models (β-hHis). Structural modifications leading to cyclic imino derivatives such as spinacine, aza-histidine and analogues with shortening or elongation of the native side chain (nor-histidine and homo-histidine, respectively) are also described. Examples of the use of the described analogues to replace native histidine in bioactive peptides are also given.

Show MeSH
Series of l-homo-histidines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3116161&req=5

f8-ijms-12-02853: Series of l-homo-histidines.

Mentions: The ten-steps synthesis of l-homo-histidine (Figure 8) by Bloemhoff and Kerling [65] using N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-glutamic acid 75 as starting material, was revisited by Altman et al. [66] (Scheme 17).


Conformationally constrained histidines in the design of peptidomimetics: strategies for the χ-space control.

Stefanucci A, Pinnen F, Feliciani F, Cacciatore I, Lucente G, Mollica A - Int J Mol Sci (2011)

Series of l-homo-histidines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3116161&req=5

f8-ijms-12-02853: Series of l-homo-histidines.
Mentions: The ten-steps synthesis of l-homo-histidine (Figure 8) by Bloemhoff and Kerling [65] using N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-glutamic acid 75 as starting material, was revisited by Altman et al. [66] (Scheme 17).

Bottom Line: A successful design of peptidomimetics must come to terms with χ-space control.Structural modifications leading to cyclic imino derivatives such as spinacine, aza-histidine and analogues with shortening or elongation of the native side chain (nor-histidine and homo-histidine, respectively) are also described.Examples of the use of the described analogues to replace native histidine in bioactive peptides are also given.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara "G. d'Annunzio", Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

ABSTRACT
A successful design of peptidomimetics must come to terms with χ-space control. The incorporation of χ-space constrained amino acids into bioactive peptides renders the χ(1) and χ(2) torsional angles of pharmacophore amino acids critical for activity and selectivity as with other relevant structural features of the template. This review describes histidine analogues characterized by replacement of native α and/or β-hydrogen atoms with alkyl substituents as well as analogues with α, β-didehydro unsaturation or C(α)-C(β) cyclopropane insertion (ACC derivatives). Attention is also dedicated to the relevant field of β-aminoacid chemistry by describing the synthesis of β(2)- and β(3)-models (β-hHis). Structural modifications leading to cyclic imino derivatives such as spinacine, aza-histidine and analogues with shortening or elongation of the native side chain (nor-histidine and homo-histidine, respectively) are also described. Examples of the use of the described analogues to replace native histidine in bioactive peptides are also given.

Show MeSH