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The organization and evolution of dorsal stream multisensory motor pathways in primates.

Kaas JH, Gharbawie OA, Stepniewska I - Front Neuroanat (2011)

Bottom Line: Each functional zone receives a different pattern of visual and somatosensory inputs, and projects preferentially to functionally matched parts of motor and premotor cortex.As PPC is a relatively small portion of cortex in most mammals, including the close relatives of primates, we suggest that a larger, more significant PPC emerged with the first primates as a region where several ethologically relevant behaviors could be initiated by sensory and intrinsic signals, and mediated via connections with premotor and motor cortex.While several classes of PPC modules appear to be retained by all primates, elaboration and differentiation of these modules likely occurred in some primates, especially humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA.

ABSTRACT
In Prosimian primates, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys microstimulation with half second trains of electrical pulses identifies separate zones in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) where reaching, defensive, grasping, and other complex movements can be evoked. Each functional zone receives a different pattern of visual and somatosensory inputs, and projects preferentially to functionally matched parts of motor and premotor cortex. As PPC is a relatively small portion of cortex in most mammals, including the close relatives of primates, we suggest that a larger, more significant PPC emerged with the first primates as a region where several ethologically relevant behaviors could be initiated by sensory and intrinsic signals, and mediated via connections with premotor and motor cortex. While several classes of PPC modules appear to be retained by all primates, elaboration and differentiation of these modules likely occurred in some primates, especially humans.

No MeSH data available.


Dorsolateral view of a macaque brain. Note open intraparietal sulcus to show buried areas: PRR, parietal reach region; VIP, ventral intraparietal area; LIP, lateral intraparietal area; and AIP, anterior intraparietal area. The grasp region identified by our long-train microstimulation study in area 2 is also shown.
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Figure 5: Dorsolateral view of a macaque brain. Note open intraparietal sulcus to show buried areas: PRR, parietal reach region; VIP, ventral intraparietal area; LIP, lateral intraparietal area; and AIP, anterior intraparietal area. The grasp region identified by our long-train microstimulation study in area 2 is also shown.

Mentions: While the connections and neurophysiology of PPC in macaques have been intensively studied, there is only limited information based on long-train electrical stimulation. Cooke et al. (2003) located a defensive movement zone in the intraparietal sulcus in cortex attributed to the VIP. A matching defensive zone was located in M1 (Graziano et al., 2002). In our preliminary, ongoing studies of PPC in macaques, we identified a grasp zone in the cortex just medial and rostral to the tip of the intraparietal sulcus (Figure 5). This grasp zone, however, is not located in cortex commonly identified as PPC, but rather it is in a middle part of area 2. A matching grasp zone has been located in parts of PMV and M1 in macaques (Graziano et al., 2002). The hand portion of area 2 has connections with M1, but these connections were described as sparse (Pons and Kaas, 1986). More recently we have determined that the grasp zone of area 2 in macaques is preferentially connected with the M1 grasp zone and adjacent cortex in the rostral bank of the central sulcus. The connections of VIP are somewhat uncertain, but large injections in the VIP region labeled neurons in both M1 and premotor cortex (Lewis and Van Essen, 2000) and injections in caudal PMV (F4) labeled neurons in the VIP region (Luppino et al., 1999). The grasp zone in area 2 identified by microstimulation in macaques is close to, but not overlapping the anterior intraparietal area, AIP, which is on the lateral bank of the rostral end of the intraparietal sulcus. Microelectrode recordings indicate that AIP is involved in grasping and manipulating objects in macaque monkeys (Sakata et al., 1995), and AIP projects to a rostral division (F5) of PMV (Luppino et al., 1999). Thus, there is evidence for more than one parietal–frontal pathway for grasping in macaques.


The organization and evolution of dorsal stream multisensory motor pathways in primates.

Kaas JH, Gharbawie OA, Stepniewska I - Front Neuroanat (2011)

Dorsolateral view of a macaque brain. Note open intraparietal sulcus to show buried areas: PRR, parietal reach region; VIP, ventral intraparietal area; LIP, lateral intraparietal area; and AIP, anterior intraparietal area. The grasp region identified by our long-train microstimulation study in area 2 is also shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3116136&req=5

Figure 5: Dorsolateral view of a macaque brain. Note open intraparietal sulcus to show buried areas: PRR, parietal reach region; VIP, ventral intraparietal area; LIP, lateral intraparietal area; and AIP, anterior intraparietal area. The grasp region identified by our long-train microstimulation study in area 2 is also shown.
Mentions: While the connections and neurophysiology of PPC in macaques have been intensively studied, there is only limited information based on long-train electrical stimulation. Cooke et al. (2003) located a defensive movement zone in the intraparietal sulcus in cortex attributed to the VIP. A matching defensive zone was located in M1 (Graziano et al., 2002). In our preliminary, ongoing studies of PPC in macaques, we identified a grasp zone in the cortex just medial and rostral to the tip of the intraparietal sulcus (Figure 5). This grasp zone, however, is not located in cortex commonly identified as PPC, but rather it is in a middle part of area 2. A matching grasp zone has been located in parts of PMV and M1 in macaques (Graziano et al., 2002). The hand portion of area 2 has connections with M1, but these connections were described as sparse (Pons and Kaas, 1986). More recently we have determined that the grasp zone of area 2 in macaques is preferentially connected with the M1 grasp zone and adjacent cortex in the rostral bank of the central sulcus. The connections of VIP are somewhat uncertain, but large injections in the VIP region labeled neurons in both M1 and premotor cortex (Lewis and Van Essen, 2000) and injections in caudal PMV (F4) labeled neurons in the VIP region (Luppino et al., 1999). The grasp zone in area 2 identified by microstimulation in macaques is close to, but not overlapping the anterior intraparietal area, AIP, which is on the lateral bank of the rostral end of the intraparietal sulcus. Microelectrode recordings indicate that AIP is involved in grasping and manipulating objects in macaque monkeys (Sakata et al., 1995), and AIP projects to a rostral division (F5) of PMV (Luppino et al., 1999). Thus, there is evidence for more than one parietal–frontal pathway for grasping in macaques.

Bottom Line: Each functional zone receives a different pattern of visual and somatosensory inputs, and projects preferentially to functionally matched parts of motor and premotor cortex.As PPC is a relatively small portion of cortex in most mammals, including the close relatives of primates, we suggest that a larger, more significant PPC emerged with the first primates as a region where several ethologically relevant behaviors could be initiated by sensory and intrinsic signals, and mediated via connections with premotor and motor cortex.While several classes of PPC modules appear to be retained by all primates, elaboration and differentiation of these modules likely occurred in some primates, especially humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA.

ABSTRACT
In Prosimian primates, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys microstimulation with half second trains of electrical pulses identifies separate zones in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) where reaching, defensive, grasping, and other complex movements can be evoked. Each functional zone receives a different pattern of visual and somatosensory inputs, and projects preferentially to functionally matched parts of motor and premotor cortex. As PPC is a relatively small portion of cortex in most mammals, including the close relatives of primates, we suggest that a larger, more significant PPC emerged with the first primates as a region where several ethologically relevant behaviors could be initiated by sensory and intrinsic signals, and mediated via connections with premotor and motor cortex. While several classes of PPC modules appear to be retained by all primates, elaboration and differentiation of these modules likely occurred in some primates, especially humans.

No MeSH data available.