Limits...
Control of Mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in Ireland.

Partridge T, Toolan D, Egan J, More S - Ir Vet J (2008)

Bottom Line: This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease.M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm.In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agriculture Fisheries & Food, District Veterinary Office, Waterford, Co, Waterford, Ireland. tom.partridge@agriculture.gov.ie.

ABSTRACT
In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis) is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile) was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Charts used for the standard (left) and severe (right) interpretation of the single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICTT) in deer.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113879&req=5

Figure 2: Charts used for the standard (left) and severe (right) interpretation of the single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICTT) in deer.

Mentions: On each farm, the SICTT was conducted using the following methodology. A coarse electric shears (Liscop Super 3000-Type 1300-2-TD) was used to remove heavy hair from one side of the neck and then a fine electric shears (Oyster no. 80, size 40) was used to prepare two injection sites. Each injection site was approximately 45 mm square, and both sites were located 70-80 mm apart, in the middle third of the neck. Each site was palpated and unusual features (lumps etc.) noted. A fold of skin was lifted at each site, between the thumb and forefinger and measured using digital calipers. All measurements were recorded. Then, at the centre of the upper and lower sites, respectively, 0.1 ml of avian tuberculin PPD (25,000 IU/ml) and bovine tuberculin PPD (30,000 Ph. Eur. U/ml, each from the Institute for Animal Science and Health, Lelystad, the Netherlands) were injected intradermally using a single-dose 1 ml insulin syringe and 26-gauge, 3/8 inch needle. Needles were disinfected before each injection using methylated spirits. When the intradermal injection was properly executed, a slight resistance was evident and a 'bleb', which tended to spread, was observed to form. A lack of resistance indicated the injection was subcutaneous. 72 ± 4 hours after injection, the injection sites were examined and measured to the nearest 0.1 mm. Precise measurements were required as the changes in skin thickness were often minimal. The skin reaction (the difference between the skin measurements at 0 and 72 hours) was interpreted according to the schema described in Figure 2. A severe interpretation was applied where TB infection in a herd had recently been established; otherwise a standard interpretation was made.


Control of Mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in Ireland.

Partridge T, Toolan D, Egan J, More S - Ir Vet J (2008)

Charts used for the standard (left) and severe (right) interpretation of the single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICTT) in deer.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113879&req=5

Figure 2: Charts used for the standard (left) and severe (right) interpretation of the single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICTT) in deer.
Mentions: On each farm, the SICTT was conducted using the following methodology. A coarse electric shears (Liscop Super 3000-Type 1300-2-TD) was used to remove heavy hair from one side of the neck and then a fine electric shears (Oyster no. 80, size 40) was used to prepare two injection sites. Each injection site was approximately 45 mm square, and both sites were located 70-80 mm apart, in the middle third of the neck. Each site was palpated and unusual features (lumps etc.) noted. A fold of skin was lifted at each site, between the thumb and forefinger and measured using digital calipers. All measurements were recorded. Then, at the centre of the upper and lower sites, respectively, 0.1 ml of avian tuberculin PPD (25,000 IU/ml) and bovine tuberculin PPD (30,000 Ph. Eur. U/ml, each from the Institute for Animal Science and Health, Lelystad, the Netherlands) were injected intradermally using a single-dose 1 ml insulin syringe and 26-gauge, 3/8 inch needle. Needles were disinfected before each injection using methylated spirits. When the intradermal injection was properly executed, a slight resistance was evident and a 'bleb', which tended to spread, was observed to form. A lack of resistance indicated the injection was subcutaneous. 72 ± 4 hours after injection, the injection sites were examined and measured to the nearest 0.1 mm. Precise measurements were required as the changes in skin thickness were often minimal. The skin reaction (the difference between the skin measurements at 0 and 72 hours) was interpreted according to the schema described in Figure 2. A severe interpretation was applied where TB infection in a herd had recently been established; otherwise a standard interpretation was made.

Bottom Line: This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease.M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm.In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agriculture Fisheries & Food, District Veterinary Office, Waterford, Co, Waterford, Ireland. tom.partridge@agriculture.gov.ie.

ABSTRACT
In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis) is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile) was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus