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Tuberculosis in alpaca (Lama pacos) on a farm in Ireland. 2. Results of an epidemiological investigation.

Connolly Dj, Dwyer P, Fagan J, Hayes M, Ryan E, Costello E, Kilroy A, More S - Ir Vet J (2008)

Bottom Line: Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring.Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge.No further TB cases have been detected.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Ballybaun, Gort, Co, Galway, Ireland. djconnolly@iol.ie.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice), the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures) and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious) animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A map of the index and neighbouring farms. The index farm, with three distinct fragments is presented in solid black. All neighbouring land fragments are outlined, and neighbouring farms 1 to 4 are labelled. Alpaca grazed a field on neighbouring farm 1 (grey shading) during November 2003 to March 2004. The location of badger setts (open circle) and of an infected dead badger (in January, circle with dot) is shown.
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Figure 1: A map of the index and neighbouring farms. The index farm, with three distinct fragments is presented in solid black. All neighbouring land fragments are outlined, and neighbouring farms 1 to 4 are labelled. Alpaca grazed a field on neighbouring farm 1 (grey shading) during November 2003 to March 2004. The location of badger setts (open circle) and of an infected dead badger (in January, circle with dot) is shown.

Mentions: The farm is located in Ireland. The farm is almost 50 acres (19.5 hectares) in area, including a 40-acre (16.2 hectares) plot and two non-contiguous fragments of three acres (1.2 hectares) and five acres (2.0 hectares, in two adjacent fields) (Figure 1). The 40-acre (16.2 hectares) plot, purchased and reclaimed during 2003-2004 from rough pasture with rocky outcrops, was not used by farmed stock for some years prior to reclamation. Each section is subdivided into a number of paddocks. The boundaries are double fenced, with sheep wire fencing placed a metre inside a traditional dry stone wall structure, which had partially collapsed in some places. Fencing ensured that contact with cattle was limited, except at one boundary point where a water trough was shared with cattle, but the fencing was not adequate to restrict movement of badgers. Contact by the alpacas with each other within their land section was routinely close. In addition, prolonged contact with cattle occurred on a few occasions when alpacas were grazed, at times of grass shortage, on separate lands (neighbouring farm 1) owned by one of the alpaca co-owners. A water trough was shared on the three-acre fragment between alpaca and cattle from neighbouring farm 2 (Figure 1). Prior to the outbreak, water and feeding troughs were placed at ground level, and were accessible to wildlife, including badgers.


Tuberculosis in alpaca (Lama pacos) on a farm in Ireland. 2. Results of an epidemiological investigation.

Connolly Dj, Dwyer P, Fagan J, Hayes M, Ryan E, Costello E, Kilroy A, More S - Ir Vet J (2008)

A map of the index and neighbouring farms. The index farm, with three distinct fragments is presented in solid black. All neighbouring land fragments are outlined, and neighbouring farms 1 to 4 are labelled. Alpaca grazed a field on neighbouring farm 1 (grey shading) during November 2003 to March 2004. The location of badger setts (open circle) and of an infected dead badger (in January, circle with dot) is shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113878&req=5

Figure 1: A map of the index and neighbouring farms. The index farm, with three distinct fragments is presented in solid black. All neighbouring land fragments are outlined, and neighbouring farms 1 to 4 are labelled. Alpaca grazed a field on neighbouring farm 1 (grey shading) during November 2003 to March 2004. The location of badger setts (open circle) and of an infected dead badger (in January, circle with dot) is shown.
Mentions: The farm is located in Ireland. The farm is almost 50 acres (19.5 hectares) in area, including a 40-acre (16.2 hectares) plot and two non-contiguous fragments of three acres (1.2 hectares) and five acres (2.0 hectares, in two adjacent fields) (Figure 1). The 40-acre (16.2 hectares) plot, purchased and reclaimed during 2003-2004 from rough pasture with rocky outcrops, was not used by farmed stock for some years prior to reclamation. Each section is subdivided into a number of paddocks. The boundaries are double fenced, with sheep wire fencing placed a metre inside a traditional dry stone wall structure, which had partially collapsed in some places. Fencing ensured that contact with cattle was limited, except at one boundary point where a water trough was shared with cattle, but the fencing was not adequate to restrict movement of badgers. Contact by the alpacas with each other within their land section was routinely close. In addition, prolonged contact with cattle occurred on a few occasions when alpacas were grazed, at times of grass shortage, on separate lands (neighbouring farm 1) owned by one of the alpaca co-owners. A water trough was shared on the three-acre fragment between alpaca and cattle from neighbouring farm 2 (Figure 1). Prior to the outbreak, water and feeding troughs were placed at ground level, and were accessible to wildlife, including badgers.

Bottom Line: Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring.Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge.No further TB cases have been detected.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Ballybaun, Gort, Co, Galway, Ireland. djconnolly@iol.ie.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice), the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures) and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious) animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus