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Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review.

Maischberger E, Irwin J, Carrington S, Duggan V - Ir Vet J (2008)

Bottom Line: The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover.To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment.This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Science Centre, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. eva.maischberger@ucd.ie.

ABSTRACT
The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The presence of free fluid in the uterine lumen (*) is diagnostic for the condition of PPBEM (Courtesy of Dr Christine Aurich, Vienna University).
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Figure 3: The presence of free fluid in the uterine lumen (*) is diagnostic for the condition of PPBEM (Courtesy of Dr Christine Aurich, Vienna University).

Mentions: While PPBEM is easily diagnosed, its root causes are not always thoroughly investigated. A comprehensive assessment requires a detailed breeding history [44,22]. Any changes in perineal, vulvar or cervical conformation that predispose the mare to PPBEM should also be evaluated before breeding [44,22,16]. It is very important to check that the cervix opens properly in oestrus and closes in dioestrus. Routine pre-breeding uterine swabs should be obtained from 'at-risk' mares, using double-guarded swabs. These minimise contamination with cervical, vaginal or perineal bacterial flora [11], offering the possibility of isolating organisms that are characteristic of susceptible mares, such as non-haemolytic Escherichia coli and β-haemolytic Streptococcus [1,10,26]. Bacteriology and cytology should always be conducted together, as the detection of PMNs together with potential pathogens is a much better indicator of the condition than bacteriology alone [26]. Following this initial examination, confirmation of a diagnosis of PPBEM is achieved using transrectal ultrasound examination 24 to 48 hours after breeding. The presence of free fluid in the uterine lumen (more than 15 to 20 mm in diameter) [45,4,7] is diagnostic for the condition [27,7,22,15] (Figure 3). The earlier the diagnosis is made, the earlier the practitioner is able to start an effective treatment. This greatly enhances the chance of the mare carrying a foal to term. It is not uncommon that mares with a long history of normal fertility can spontaneously acquire PPBEM, giving the clinician no opportunity for prophylactic intervention [44].


Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review.

Maischberger E, Irwin J, Carrington S, Duggan V - Ir Vet J (2008)

The presence of free fluid in the uterine lumen (*) is diagnostic for the condition of PPBEM (Courtesy of Dr Christine Aurich, Vienna University).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113865&req=5

Figure 3: The presence of free fluid in the uterine lumen (*) is diagnostic for the condition of PPBEM (Courtesy of Dr Christine Aurich, Vienna University).
Mentions: While PPBEM is easily diagnosed, its root causes are not always thoroughly investigated. A comprehensive assessment requires a detailed breeding history [44,22]. Any changes in perineal, vulvar or cervical conformation that predispose the mare to PPBEM should also be evaluated before breeding [44,22,16]. It is very important to check that the cervix opens properly in oestrus and closes in dioestrus. Routine pre-breeding uterine swabs should be obtained from 'at-risk' mares, using double-guarded swabs. These minimise contamination with cervical, vaginal or perineal bacterial flora [11], offering the possibility of isolating organisms that are characteristic of susceptible mares, such as non-haemolytic Escherichia coli and β-haemolytic Streptococcus [1,10,26]. Bacteriology and cytology should always be conducted together, as the detection of PMNs together with potential pathogens is a much better indicator of the condition than bacteriology alone [26]. Following this initial examination, confirmation of a diagnosis of PPBEM is achieved using transrectal ultrasound examination 24 to 48 hours after breeding. The presence of free fluid in the uterine lumen (more than 15 to 20 mm in diameter) [45,4,7] is diagnostic for the condition [27,7,22,15] (Figure 3). The earlier the diagnosis is made, the earlier the practitioner is able to start an effective treatment. This greatly enhances the chance of the mare carrying a foal to term. It is not uncommon that mares with a long history of normal fertility can spontaneously acquire PPBEM, giving the clinician no opportunity for prophylactic intervention [44].

Bottom Line: The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover.To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment.This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Science Centre, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. eva.maischberger@ucd.ie.

ABSTRACT
The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus