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Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

Cummins C, Carrington S, Fitzpatrick E, Duggan V - Ir Vet J (2008)

Bottom Line: Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate.The region most affected is the cervical star.If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4. Carolyn.cummins@ucd.ie.

ABSTRACT
Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Placenta from a mare with ascending placentitis. The chorioallantoic membrane is thickened and there is a purulent exudate around the cervical star.
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Figure 2: Placenta from a mare with ascending placentitis. The chorioallantoic membrane is thickened and there is a purulent exudate around the cervical star.

Mentions: Ascending placentitis occurs when bacteria migrate along the reproductive tract from the vagina through the cervical canal and cause infection in the cervical star region of the chorioallantois, which subsequently spreads centripetally along the placenta [3,25] (Figure 2). The migration of bacteria leads to a necrotising inflammation of the chorioallantois [3] and upregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placental tissue [22]. This leads to the production of prostaglandins by the placenta, which may cause uterine contraction and premature labour [22,23]. Inflammation, thickening and separation of the chorioallantois, if diffuse, may impede the provision of oxygen and nutrients to the foal [39,31]. Finally, infection can extend to the foetus resulting in abortion or the birth of a weak or septic foal [3]. Premature foals from mares affected by placentitis have poor survival rates and require intensive neonatal care [1].


Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

Cummins C, Carrington S, Fitzpatrick E, Duggan V - Ir Vet J (2008)

Placenta from a mare with ascending placentitis. The chorioallantoic membrane is thickened and there is a purulent exudate around the cervical star.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113861&req=5

Figure 2: Placenta from a mare with ascending placentitis. The chorioallantoic membrane is thickened and there is a purulent exudate around the cervical star.
Mentions: Ascending placentitis occurs when bacteria migrate along the reproductive tract from the vagina through the cervical canal and cause infection in the cervical star region of the chorioallantois, which subsequently spreads centripetally along the placenta [3,25] (Figure 2). The migration of bacteria leads to a necrotising inflammation of the chorioallantois [3] and upregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placental tissue [22]. This leads to the production of prostaglandins by the placenta, which may cause uterine contraction and premature labour [22,23]. Inflammation, thickening and separation of the chorioallantois, if diffuse, may impede the provision of oxygen and nutrients to the foal [39,31]. Finally, infection can extend to the foetus resulting in abortion or the birth of a weak or septic foal [3]. Premature foals from mares affected by placentitis have poor survival rates and require intensive neonatal care [1].

Bottom Line: Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate.The region most affected is the cervical star.If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4. Carolyn.cummins@ucd.ie.

ABSTRACT
Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus