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Salvianolic acids: small compounds with multiple mechanisms for cardiovascular protection.

Ho JH, Hong CY - J. Biomed. Sci. (2011)

Bottom Line: Salvianolic acids, especially salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B), have been found to have potent anti-oxidative capabilities due to their polyphenolic structure.In this article, we review a variety of studies focusing on the above mentioned mechanisms.Besides, the target proteins of salvianolic acids are also described.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, and Department of Ophthalmology, Wang Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Salvianolic acids are the most abundant water-soluble compounds extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen). In China, Danshen has been wildly used to treat cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years. Salvianolic acids, especially salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B), have been found to have potent anti-oxidative capabilities due to their polyphenolic structure. Recently, intracellular signaling pathways regulated by salvianolic acids in vascular endothelial cells, aortic smooth muscle cells, as well as cardiomyocytes, have been investigated both in vitro and in vivo upon various cardiovascular insults. It is discovered that the cardiovascular protection of salvianolic acids is not only because salvianolic acids act as reactive oxygen species scavengers, but also due to the reduction of leukocyte-endothelial adherence, inhibition of inflammation and metalloproteinases expression from aortic smooth muscle cells, and indirect regulation of immune function. Competitive binding of salvianolic acids to target proteins to interrupt protein-protein interactions has also been found to be a mechanism of cardiovascular protection by salvianolic acids. In this article, we review a variety of studies focusing on the above mentioned mechanisms. Besides, the target proteins of salvianolic acids are also described. These results of recent advances have shed new light to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for salvianolic acids to treat cardiovascular diseases.

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Chemical structure of salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and Sal B. More than eighteen components can be identified in Radix S. miltiorrhiza. Sal B is the most abundant while Sal A is the most potent water-soluble phenolic component in Radix S. miltiorrhiza.
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Figure 1: Chemical structure of salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and Sal B. More than eighteen components can be identified in Radix S. miltiorrhiza. Sal B is the most abundant while Sal A is the most potent water-soluble phenolic component in Radix S. miltiorrhiza.

Mentions: Salvianolic acid is one of the bioactive compounds of S. miltiorrhiza BGE extracted from the root of S. miltiorrhiza, commonly named "Danshen" in China. According to traditional Chinese medicine, Danshen can be used to promote blood flow and to resolve blood stasis. Therefore, it is wildly prescribed to patients with angina pectoris, hyperlipidemia, and acute ischemic stroke [1-3]. Using chromatographic fingerprinting method and mass spectrometry, there are more than eighteen components in Radix S. miltiorrhiza. They can be classified as water-soluble (hydrophilic) phenolic compounds and nonpolar (lipid-soluble) diterpenoidal compounds [4,5]. Salvianolic acids are the main water-soluble compound in S. miltiorrhiza. Among salvianolic acids, Sal A and Sal B are the most abundant components. The structures of salvianolic acids are shown in figure 1.


Salvianolic acids: small compounds with multiple mechanisms for cardiovascular protection.

Ho JH, Hong CY - J. Biomed. Sci. (2011)

Chemical structure of salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and Sal B. More than eighteen components can be identified in Radix S. miltiorrhiza. Sal B is the most abundant while Sal A is the most potent water-soluble phenolic component in Radix S. miltiorrhiza.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113734&req=5

Figure 1: Chemical structure of salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and Sal B. More than eighteen components can be identified in Radix S. miltiorrhiza. Sal B is the most abundant while Sal A is the most potent water-soluble phenolic component in Radix S. miltiorrhiza.
Mentions: Salvianolic acid is one of the bioactive compounds of S. miltiorrhiza BGE extracted from the root of S. miltiorrhiza, commonly named "Danshen" in China. According to traditional Chinese medicine, Danshen can be used to promote blood flow and to resolve blood stasis. Therefore, it is wildly prescribed to patients with angina pectoris, hyperlipidemia, and acute ischemic stroke [1-3]. Using chromatographic fingerprinting method and mass spectrometry, there are more than eighteen components in Radix S. miltiorrhiza. They can be classified as water-soluble (hydrophilic) phenolic compounds and nonpolar (lipid-soluble) diterpenoidal compounds [4,5]. Salvianolic acids are the main water-soluble compound in S. miltiorrhiza. Among salvianolic acids, Sal A and Sal B are the most abundant components. The structures of salvianolic acids are shown in figure 1.

Bottom Line: Salvianolic acids, especially salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B), have been found to have potent anti-oxidative capabilities due to their polyphenolic structure.In this article, we review a variety of studies focusing on the above mentioned mechanisms.Besides, the target proteins of salvianolic acids are also described.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, and Department of Ophthalmology, Wang Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Salvianolic acids are the most abundant water-soluble compounds extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen). In China, Danshen has been wildly used to treat cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years. Salvianolic acids, especially salvianolic acid A (Sal A) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B), have been found to have potent anti-oxidative capabilities due to their polyphenolic structure. Recently, intracellular signaling pathways regulated by salvianolic acids in vascular endothelial cells, aortic smooth muscle cells, as well as cardiomyocytes, have been investigated both in vitro and in vivo upon various cardiovascular insults. It is discovered that the cardiovascular protection of salvianolic acids is not only because salvianolic acids act as reactive oxygen species scavengers, but also due to the reduction of leukocyte-endothelial adherence, inhibition of inflammation and metalloproteinases expression from aortic smooth muscle cells, and indirect regulation of immune function. Competitive binding of salvianolic acids to target proteins to interrupt protein-protein interactions has also been found to be a mechanism of cardiovascular protection by salvianolic acids. In this article, we review a variety of studies focusing on the above mentioned mechanisms. Besides, the target proteins of salvianolic acids are also described. These results of recent advances have shed new light to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for salvianolic acids to treat cardiovascular diseases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus