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Immune System as a Sensory System.

Dozmorov IM, Dresser D - Int J Biomed Sci (2010)

Bottom Line: As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements.Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response.This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Arthritis and Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena.

No MeSH data available.


Two types of receptions differing by the rate of adaptation to the dynamical stimulus. A, Sensory system have two types of receptors differing by the rate of adaptation (9): tonic receptors that adapt slowly to a stimulus and continues to produce action potentials over the duration of the stimulus (left), and phasic receptors that adapt rapidly to a stimulus (right) and react to both the emergence of the signal (on- reaction) and to it cessation (off-reaction). The response diminishes quickly ant then stops. B, Immune system has different types of cells resembling in their reactions of tonic and phasic receptors of sensory systems. Some lymphocytes react preferably to the presence of foreign antigen (CD5- B lymphocytes, small resting T lymphocytes), whereas the others react to the change of antigenic contest in time (CD5+ B lymphocytes, naturally activated T-blast forms) or to the appearance of heterogeneity in presumingly homogenous tissue (NK killing of syngeneic targets in nonsyngeneic for targets environment (64, 65)).
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Figure 1: Two types of receptions differing by the rate of adaptation to the dynamical stimulus. A, Sensory system have two types of receptors differing by the rate of adaptation (9): tonic receptors that adapt slowly to a stimulus and continues to produce action potentials over the duration of the stimulus (left), and phasic receptors that adapt rapidly to a stimulus (right) and react to both the emergence of the signal (on- reaction) and to it cessation (off-reaction). The response diminishes quickly ant then stops. B, Immune system has different types of cells resembling in their reactions of tonic and phasic receptors of sensory systems. Some lymphocytes react preferably to the presence of foreign antigen (CD5- B lymphocytes, small resting T lymphocytes), whereas the others react to the change of antigenic contest in time (CD5+ B lymphocytes, naturally activated T-blast forms) or to the appearance of heterogeneity in presumingly homogenous tissue (NK killing of syngeneic targets in nonsyngeneic for targets environment (64, 65)).

Mentions: It has been reported that sensory systems have two types of receptors (35): 1) phasic receptors rapidly adapting and reacting mostly to the switching on and off of stimuli and 2) slowly adapting tonic receptors. It would appear that they are able to sense two basic characteristics of signal, tonic receptors detecting the amplitude of the signal and phasic receptors detecting the rate of change of the signal. Hence, the necessity of two specialized structures for sensing these two additive parameters can be viewed as an expression of complementarity in the physiology of sensory systems, a principle more or less analogous to the Bohr’s principle of complementarity in quantum mechanics. This principle of quantum theory states that a physical object can have pairs of complementary or conjugate properties, but we can only perceive one at a time and are never able to make simultaneous predictions of conjugate variables, such as, for example position and momentum. Gabor (36) was the first who noted the intriguing fact that in psychophysics, as in quantum physics, one could accurately determine conjugate variables (time of the signal occurrence or its frequency) one at a time, but not both (36, 60). Thus a complementarity principle holds for psychophysics as well as for quantum physics (Fig. 1).


Immune System as a Sensory System.

Dozmorov IM, Dresser D - Int J Biomed Sci (2010)

Two types of receptions differing by the rate of adaptation to the dynamical stimulus. A, Sensory system have two types of receptors differing by the rate of adaptation (9): tonic receptors that adapt slowly to a stimulus and continues to produce action potentials over the duration of the stimulus (left), and phasic receptors that adapt rapidly to a stimulus (right) and react to both the emergence of the signal (on- reaction) and to it cessation (off-reaction). The response diminishes quickly ant then stops. B, Immune system has different types of cells resembling in their reactions of tonic and phasic receptors of sensory systems. Some lymphocytes react preferably to the presence of foreign antigen (CD5- B lymphocytes, small resting T lymphocytes), whereas the others react to the change of antigenic contest in time (CD5+ B lymphocytes, naturally activated T-blast forms) or to the appearance of heterogeneity in presumingly homogenous tissue (NK killing of syngeneic targets in nonsyngeneic for targets environment (64, 65)).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113540&req=5

Figure 1: Two types of receptions differing by the rate of adaptation to the dynamical stimulus. A, Sensory system have two types of receptors differing by the rate of adaptation (9): tonic receptors that adapt slowly to a stimulus and continues to produce action potentials over the duration of the stimulus (left), and phasic receptors that adapt rapidly to a stimulus (right) and react to both the emergence of the signal (on- reaction) and to it cessation (off-reaction). The response diminishes quickly ant then stops. B, Immune system has different types of cells resembling in their reactions of tonic and phasic receptors of sensory systems. Some lymphocytes react preferably to the presence of foreign antigen (CD5- B lymphocytes, small resting T lymphocytes), whereas the others react to the change of antigenic contest in time (CD5+ B lymphocytes, naturally activated T-blast forms) or to the appearance of heterogeneity in presumingly homogenous tissue (NK killing of syngeneic targets in nonsyngeneic for targets environment (64, 65)).
Mentions: It has been reported that sensory systems have two types of receptors (35): 1) phasic receptors rapidly adapting and reacting mostly to the switching on and off of stimuli and 2) slowly adapting tonic receptors. It would appear that they are able to sense two basic characteristics of signal, tonic receptors detecting the amplitude of the signal and phasic receptors detecting the rate of change of the signal. Hence, the necessity of two specialized structures for sensing these two additive parameters can be viewed as an expression of complementarity in the physiology of sensory systems, a principle more or less analogous to the Bohr’s principle of complementarity in quantum mechanics. This principle of quantum theory states that a physical object can have pairs of complementary or conjugate properties, but we can only perceive one at a time and are never able to make simultaneous predictions of conjugate variables, such as, for example position and momentum. Gabor (36) was the first who noted the intriguing fact that in psychophysics, as in quantum physics, one could accurately determine conjugate variables (time of the signal occurrence or its frequency) one at a time, but not both (36, 60). Thus a complementarity principle holds for psychophysics as well as for quantum physics (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements.Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response.This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Arthritis and Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena.

No MeSH data available.