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Willingness to pay and conjoint analysis to determine women's preferences for ovarian stimulating hormones in the treatment of infertility in Spain.

Palumbo A, De La Fuente P, Rodríguez M, Sánchez F, Martínez-Salazar J, Muñoz M, Marqueta J, Hernández J, Espallardo O, Polanco C, Paz S, Lizán L - Hum. Reprod. (2011)

Bottom Line: Utility values (CA) showed that effectiveness was the most valued attribute (39.82), followed by costs (18.74), safety (17.75) and information sharing with physicians (14.93).Additional WTP exists for 1-2% effectiveness improvement.Effectiveness and costs were the most important determinants of preferences, followed by safety and information sharing with physicians.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FIVAP, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38204, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite many advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART), little is known about preferences for technological developments of women undergoing fertility treatments. The aims of this study were to investigate the preferences of infertile women undergoing ART for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) treatments; to determine the utility values ascribed to different attributes of COS treatments; and to estimate women's willingness to pay (WTP) for COS.

Methods: A representative sample of ambulatory patients ready to receive, or receiving, COS therapies for infertility were recruited from seven specialized private centres in six autonomous communities in Spain. Descriptive, inferential and conjoint analyses (CA) were used to elicit preferences and WTP. Attributes and levels of COS treatments were identified by literature review and two focus groups with experts and patients. WTP valuations were derived by a combination of double-bounded (closed-ended) and open questions and contingent ranking methods.

Results: In total, 160 patients [mean (standard deviation; SD) age: 35.8 (4.2) years] were interviewed. Over half of the participants (55.0%) had a high level of education (university degree), most (78.8%) were married and half (50.0%) had an estimated net income of >€1502 per month and had paid a mean (SD) €1194.17 (€778.29) for their most recent hormonal treatment. The most frequent causes of infertility were related to sperm abnormalities (50.3%). In 30.6% of cases, there were two causes of infertility. The maximum WTP for COS treatment was €800 (median) per cycle; 35.5% were willing to pay an additional €101-€300 for a 1-2% effectiveness gain in the treatment. Utility values (CA) showed that effectiveness was the most valued attribute (39.82), followed by costs (18.74), safety (17.75) and information sharing with physicians (14.93).

Conclusions: WTP for COS therapies exceeds current cost. Additional WTP exists for 1-2% effectiveness improvement. Effectiveness and costs were the most important determinants of preferences, followed by safety and information sharing with physicians.

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Type of questions used to elicit WTP.
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DER139F1: Type of questions used to elicit WTP.

Mentions: As part of the study field work, a structured, two-part (WTP and CA) patient interview was designed based on the findings gathered from the literature, the focus expert group and the telephone interviews. The interview was conducted by a trained researcher (S.P.), not known to the participants, and took place either before or after the patients’ routine medical appointment for a maximum of 40 min. First, the patients were presented with a description of the product being evaluated and were asked about their WTP for a previously defined amount that reflected the current price of treatments in the market, which was agreed by experts and patients. Their maximum WTP was established from a combination of double-bounded (closed-ended) and open questions (Fig. 1). In those situations where participants had difficulty expressing a maximum WTP, the technique of first refusal price was employed in a way such that all women finally reported a maximum amount. Additionally, they were asked about the number of times throughout the year they would be prepared to pay the maximum amount stated and the percentage of treatment costs they considered that public healthcare services should cover. Three final questions explored the extra quantity of money participants were willing to pay for individual characteristics of treatments, such as injection comfort, tolerance and effectiveness. The interview also included socio-demographic questions, open questions on the current price that patients pay for hormonal treatments per cycle of COS and a visual analogue scale (VAS) to estimate the proportional value assigned to the hormonal therapies in relation to the total amount paid for ART.Figure 1


Willingness to pay and conjoint analysis to determine women's preferences for ovarian stimulating hormones in the treatment of infertility in Spain.

Palumbo A, De La Fuente P, Rodríguez M, Sánchez F, Martínez-Salazar J, Muñoz M, Marqueta J, Hernández J, Espallardo O, Polanco C, Paz S, Lizán L - Hum. Reprod. (2011)

Type of questions used to elicit WTP.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3113505&req=5

DER139F1: Type of questions used to elicit WTP.
Mentions: As part of the study field work, a structured, two-part (WTP and CA) patient interview was designed based on the findings gathered from the literature, the focus expert group and the telephone interviews. The interview was conducted by a trained researcher (S.P.), not known to the participants, and took place either before or after the patients’ routine medical appointment for a maximum of 40 min. First, the patients were presented with a description of the product being evaluated and were asked about their WTP for a previously defined amount that reflected the current price of treatments in the market, which was agreed by experts and patients. Their maximum WTP was established from a combination of double-bounded (closed-ended) and open questions (Fig. 1). In those situations where participants had difficulty expressing a maximum WTP, the technique of first refusal price was employed in a way such that all women finally reported a maximum amount. Additionally, they were asked about the number of times throughout the year they would be prepared to pay the maximum amount stated and the percentage of treatment costs they considered that public healthcare services should cover. Three final questions explored the extra quantity of money participants were willing to pay for individual characteristics of treatments, such as injection comfort, tolerance and effectiveness. The interview also included socio-demographic questions, open questions on the current price that patients pay for hormonal treatments per cycle of COS and a visual analogue scale (VAS) to estimate the proportional value assigned to the hormonal therapies in relation to the total amount paid for ART.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Utility values (CA) showed that effectiveness was the most valued attribute (39.82), followed by costs (18.74), safety (17.75) and information sharing with physicians (14.93).Additional WTP exists for 1-2% effectiveness improvement.Effectiveness and costs were the most important determinants of preferences, followed by safety and information sharing with physicians.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FIVAP, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38204, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite many advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART), little is known about preferences for technological developments of women undergoing fertility treatments. The aims of this study were to investigate the preferences of infertile women undergoing ART for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) treatments; to determine the utility values ascribed to different attributes of COS treatments; and to estimate women's willingness to pay (WTP) for COS.

Methods: A representative sample of ambulatory patients ready to receive, or receiving, COS therapies for infertility were recruited from seven specialized private centres in six autonomous communities in Spain. Descriptive, inferential and conjoint analyses (CA) were used to elicit preferences and WTP. Attributes and levels of COS treatments were identified by literature review and two focus groups with experts and patients. WTP valuations were derived by a combination of double-bounded (closed-ended) and open questions and contingent ranking methods.

Results: In total, 160 patients [mean (standard deviation; SD) age: 35.8 (4.2) years] were interviewed. Over half of the participants (55.0%) had a high level of education (university degree), most (78.8%) were married and half (50.0%) had an estimated net income of >€1502 per month and had paid a mean (SD) €1194.17 (€778.29) for their most recent hormonal treatment. The most frequent causes of infertility were related to sperm abnormalities (50.3%). In 30.6% of cases, there were two causes of infertility. The maximum WTP for COS treatment was €800 (median) per cycle; 35.5% were willing to pay an additional €101-€300 for a 1-2% effectiveness gain in the treatment. Utility values (CA) showed that effectiveness was the most valued attribute (39.82), followed by costs (18.74), safety (17.75) and information sharing with physicians (14.93).

Conclusions: WTP for COS therapies exceeds current cost. Additional WTP exists for 1-2% effectiveness improvement. Effectiveness and costs were the most important determinants of preferences, followed by safety and information sharing with physicians.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus