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A role for glutamate in subjective response to smoking and its action on inhibitory control.

Nesic J, Duka T, Rusted JM, Jackson A - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2011)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, in combination with smoking, DCS reduced the number of false alarms during the RVIP test (an index of inhibitory control) and produced a small increase in diastolic blood pressure.DCS failed to modulate IED performance.Furthermore, our results indicate that glutamate release may also be involved in the effect of smoking on inhibitory control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Moulsecoomb, Brighton, BN2 4GJ, UK.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Our previous study using memantine in smokers suggests that there may be a differential role for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the subjective and cognitive effects of smoking.

Objectives: This study was designed to investigate if D-cycloserine (DCS) would modulate the subjective and cognitive effects of limited smoking.

Methods: Forty-eight habitual smokers abstinent for a minimum of 2 h were randomly allocated to receive either placebo or 50 mg DCS (double-blind) and were subsequently required either to smoke half of one cigarette or to remain abstinent. Subjective and physiological effects of DCS were measured at baseline, 90 min postcapsule, and again after the partial-smoking manipulation, while the effects on sustained attention (rapid visual information processing test--RVIP) and cognitive flexibility (intra-extra dimensional set-shift test--IED) were evaluated only after the partial-smoking manipulation.

Results: DCS alone did not produce significant subjective effects other than an increase in ratings of "Stimulated". In combination with partial smoking, however, DCS blocked the smoking-induced increase in "Stimulated" and the decrease in "Relaxed" ratings. Furthermore, in combination with smoking, DCS reduced the number of false alarms during the RVIP test (an index of inhibitory control) and produced a small increase in diastolic blood pressure. DCS failed to modulate IED performance.

Conclusions: These findings provide further evidence of a role for glutamate release in the subjective effects of smoking but not the effects on attention and cognitive flexibility. Furthermore, our results indicate that glutamate release may also be involved in the effect of smoking on inhibitory control.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of drug (DCS) or placebo (PL) on Nic-VAS ratings of a “Stimulated” and b “Relaxed” at predrug baseline (t1), presmoking (t2), and postsmoking measurement point (t3). NS nonsmoking group, S partial-smoking group (the two groups underwent identical protocol until the partial-smoking manipulation which occurred after t2). ‡p < 0.05, ‡‡p < 0.01 (t1 vs. t2; paired t test within DCS group), *p < 0.05 (t2 vs. t3; paired t test within PL-S and DCS-S groups)
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Fig1: Effects of drug (DCS) or placebo (PL) on Nic-VAS ratings of a “Stimulated” and b “Relaxed” at predrug baseline (t1), presmoking (t2), and postsmoking measurement point (t3). NS nonsmoking group, S partial-smoking group (the two groups underwent identical protocol until the partial-smoking manipulation which occurred after t2). ‡p < 0.05, ‡‡p < 0.01 (t1 vs. t2; paired t test within DCS group), *p < 0.05 (t2 vs. t3; paired t test within PL-S and DCS-S groups)

Mentions: Main effects of time point were observed for Nic-VAS ratings “buzzed,” “impatient,” “dizzy,” “relaxed,” and “hungrier than usual” and NMDA-VAS ratings of “detached,” “slow motion,” and “unreal” (Fs[1,45] > 4.35, ps < 0.05; Table 3 and Fig. 1). All ratings increased significantly between baseline and presmoking measurements (paired ts[47] < −2.716, ps < 0.01), apart from the “relaxed” ratings, which tended to decrease (paired t[47] = 3.30, p < 0.005). In addition, a significant main effect of time point was observed for the QSU factor 2 (F[1,45] = 7.54, p < 0.01; Table 4), indicating that the negative reinforcement aspect of craving significantly increased across the two time points in all participants (paired t[47] = −4.18, p < 0.001).Table 3


A role for glutamate in subjective response to smoking and its action on inhibitory control.

Nesic J, Duka T, Rusted JM, Jackson A - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2011)

Effects of drug (DCS) or placebo (PL) on Nic-VAS ratings of a “Stimulated” and b “Relaxed” at predrug baseline (t1), presmoking (t2), and postsmoking measurement point (t3). NS nonsmoking group, S partial-smoking group (the two groups underwent identical protocol until the partial-smoking manipulation which occurred after t2). ‡p < 0.05, ‡‡p < 0.01 (t1 vs. t2; paired t test within DCS group), *p < 0.05 (t2 vs. t3; paired t test within PL-S and DCS-S groups)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111550&req=5

Fig1: Effects of drug (DCS) or placebo (PL) on Nic-VAS ratings of a “Stimulated” and b “Relaxed” at predrug baseline (t1), presmoking (t2), and postsmoking measurement point (t3). NS nonsmoking group, S partial-smoking group (the two groups underwent identical protocol until the partial-smoking manipulation which occurred after t2). ‡p < 0.05, ‡‡p < 0.01 (t1 vs. t2; paired t test within DCS group), *p < 0.05 (t2 vs. t3; paired t test within PL-S and DCS-S groups)
Mentions: Main effects of time point were observed for Nic-VAS ratings “buzzed,” “impatient,” “dizzy,” “relaxed,” and “hungrier than usual” and NMDA-VAS ratings of “detached,” “slow motion,” and “unreal” (Fs[1,45] > 4.35, ps < 0.05; Table 3 and Fig. 1). All ratings increased significantly between baseline and presmoking measurements (paired ts[47] < −2.716, ps < 0.01), apart from the “relaxed” ratings, which tended to decrease (paired t[47] = 3.30, p < 0.005). In addition, a significant main effect of time point was observed for the QSU factor 2 (F[1,45] = 7.54, p < 0.01; Table 4), indicating that the negative reinforcement aspect of craving significantly increased across the two time points in all participants (paired t[47] = −4.18, p < 0.001).Table 3

Bottom Line: Furthermore, in combination with smoking, DCS reduced the number of false alarms during the RVIP test (an index of inhibitory control) and produced a small increase in diastolic blood pressure.DCS failed to modulate IED performance.Furthermore, our results indicate that glutamate release may also be involved in the effect of smoking on inhibitory control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Moulsecoomb, Brighton, BN2 4GJ, UK.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Our previous study using memantine in smokers suggests that there may be a differential role for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the subjective and cognitive effects of smoking.

Objectives: This study was designed to investigate if D-cycloserine (DCS) would modulate the subjective and cognitive effects of limited smoking.

Methods: Forty-eight habitual smokers abstinent for a minimum of 2 h were randomly allocated to receive either placebo or 50 mg DCS (double-blind) and were subsequently required either to smoke half of one cigarette or to remain abstinent. Subjective and physiological effects of DCS were measured at baseline, 90 min postcapsule, and again after the partial-smoking manipulation, while the effects on sustained attention (rapid visual information processing test--RVIP) and cognitive flexibility (intra-extra dimensional set-shift test--IED) were evaluated only after the partial-smoking manipulation.

Results: DCS alone did not produce significant subjective effects other than an increase in ratings of "Stimulated". In combination with partial smoking, however, DCS blocked the smoking-induced increase in "Stimulated" and the decrease in "Relaxed" ratings. Furthermore, in combination with smoking, DCS reduced the number of false alarms during the RVIP test (an index of inhibitory control) and produced a small increase in diastolic blood pressure. DCS failed to modulate IED performance.

Conclusions: These findings provide further evidence of a role for glutamate release in the subjective effects of smoking but not the effects on attention and cognitive flexibility. Furthermore, our results indicate that glutamate release may also be involved in the effect of smoking on inhibitory control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus