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Children's Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation.

Davis EP, Buss C, Muftuler LT, Head K, Hasso A, Wing DA, Hobel C, Sandman CA - Front Psychol (2011)

Bottom Line: Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in gray matter density.Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only children born full term were considered.These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Women and Children's Health and Well-Being Project, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California Irvine Orange, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Disruptions to brain development associated with shortened gestation place individuals at risk for the development of behavioral and psychological dysfunction throughout the lifespan. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the benefit for brain development conferred by increased gestational length exists on a continuum across the gestational age spectrum among healthy children with a stable neonatal course. Neurodevelopment was evaluated with structural magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy right-handed 6- to 10-year-old children born between 28 and 41 gestational weeks with a stable neonatal course. Data indicate that a longer gestational period confers an advantage for neurodevelopment. Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in gray matter density. Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only children born full term were considered. These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Three-dimensional representation of regions of increased gray matter probability associated with longer gestation for right-handed children born between 28 and 41 weeks. Column 1 presents data from the complete sample, column 2 includes only children born at term (37–41 weeks gestational age) and column 3 includes only children born preterm (28–36 weeks gestational age).
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Figure 1: Three-dimensional representation of regions of increased gray matter probability associated with longer gestation for right-handed children born between 28 and 41 weeks. Column 1 presents data from the complete sample, column 2 includes only children born at term (37–41 weeks gestational age) and column 3 includes only children born preterm (28–36 weeks gestational age).

Mentions: As shown in Figure 1, VBM analyses revealed that children born at later gestational ages showed regionally specific differences in gray matter during childhood predominantly in the temporal lobes after controlling for overall brain volume. Regions with associations that achieved statistical significance after FDR correction are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Longer gestation was associated with significant, mostly bilateral, increases in gray matter density in several temporal regions including the superior (BA 22, 41, and 42) and middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and extending ventrally to the inferior temporal gyrus and the occipitotemporal gyrus/fusiform gyrus (BA 37, bilaterally and BA 20, right only) and medially to the insula. Associations between greater gestational age at birth and increased gray matter density during childhood extend dorsally to the inferior and superior parietal lobule (BA 40, bilaterally and BA 7, left only). Longer gestation was additionally associated with increases in gray matter bilaterally in the cerebellum, but only significant on the left side after FDR correction. Associations between gestational age at birth and gray matter also were revealed in subcortical regions including the caudate, but these are not discussed further because they were not significant after FDR correction (p = 0.058).


Children's Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation.

Davis EP, Buss C, Muftuler LT, Head K, Hasso A, Wing DA, Hobel C, Sandman CA - Front Psychol (2011)

Three-dimensional representation of regions of increased gray matter probability associated with longer gestation for right-handed children born between 28 and 41 weeks. Column 1 presents data from the complete sample, column 2 includes only children born at term (37–41 weeks gestational age) and column 3 includes only children born preterm (28–36 weeks gestational age).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111445&req=5

Figure 1: Three-dimensional representation of regions of increased gray matter probability associated with longer gestation for right-handed children born between 28 and 41 weeks. Column 1 presents data from the complete sample, column 2 includes only children born at term (37–41 weeks gestational age) and column 3 includes only children born preterm (28–36 weeks gestational age).
Mentions: As shown in Figure 1, VBM analyses revealed that children born at later gestational ages showed regionally specific differences in gray matter during childhood predominantly in the temporal lobes after controlling for overall brain volume. Regions with associations that achieved statistical significance after FDR correction are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Longer gestation was associated with significant, mostly bilateral, increases in gray matter density in several temporal regions including the superior (BA 22, 41, and 42) and middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and extending ventrally to the inferior temporal gyrus and the occipitotemporal gyrus/fusiform gyrus (BA 37, bilaterally and BA 20, right only) and medially to the insula. Associations between greater gestational age at birth and increased gray matter density during childhood extend dorsally to the inferior and superior parietal lobule (BA 40, bilaterally and BA 7, left only). Longer gestation was additionally associated with increases in gray matter bilaterally in the cerebellum, but only significant on the left side after FDR correction. Associations between gestational age at birth and gray matter also were revealed in subcortical regions including the caudate, but these are not discussed further because they were not significant after FDR correction (p = 0.058).

Bottom Line: Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in gray matter density.Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only children born full term were considered.These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Women and Children's Health and Well-Being Project, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California Irvine Orange, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Disruptions to brain development associated with shortened gestation place individuals at risk for the development of behavioral and psychological dysfunction throughout the lifespan. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the benefit for brain development conferred by increased gestational length exists on a continuum across the gestational age spectrum among healthy children with a stable neonatal course. Neurodevelopment was evaluated with structural magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy right-handed 6- to 10-year-old children born between 28 and 41 gestational weeks with a stable neonatal course. Data indicate that a longer gestational period confers an advantage for neurodevelopment. Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in gray matter density. Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only children born full term were considered. These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus