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Volatile constituents, inorganic elements and primary screening of bioactivity of black coral cigarette holders.

Bai X, Chen Y, Chen W, Lei H, Shi G - Mar Drugs (2011)

Bottom Line: In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active.In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE) showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II) oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms.The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China.

ABSTRACT
Black corals (BC) have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs). We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (CO₂-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc.) were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS). In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE) showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II) oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

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The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (%) of black coral extract (BCE).
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f4-marinedrugs-09-00863: The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (%) of black coral extract (BCE).

Mentions: As one of the ROS produced in biological systems, HO• can cause DNA, protein, and lipid oxidation [29]. The transition metal catalyzing Fenton reaction is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms for HO• production, in which ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to generate HO•. Consequently, the absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline-iron (II) complex ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) was tested here at 536 nm. After adding H2O2, ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) was oxidized by H2O2 to generate HO•. The absorbance of the control sample (no BCE) was the lowest due to the decreasing ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+). The addition of antioxidants can prevent ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) from oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, so that the efficiency of the scavenging hydroxyl radical can be determined. Compared to the controls, an increased absorbance was observed of which the magnitude corresponded to the concentration of BCE (Figure 3). The antioxidant compounds in BCE could reduce the oxidation of HO•, and the absorbance of BCE groups was close to the blank by chelating reaction of Fe2+ and phenanthroline. The BCE was capable of inhibiting the hydroxyl radical greatly in a concentration-dependent fashion. As can be seen in Figure 4, with increasing concentration of BCE, the inhibitory effect was enhanced greatly. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (%) of max concentration was 82.7%.


Volatile constituents, inorganic elements and primary screening of bioactivity of black coral cigarette holders.

Bai X, Chen Y, Chen W, Lei H, Shi G - Mar Drugs (2011)

The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (%) of black coral extract (BCE).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111188&req=5

f4-marinedrugs-09-00863: The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (%) of black coral extract (BCE).
Mentions: As one of the ROS produced in biological systems, HO• can cause DNA, protein, and lipid oxidation [29]. The transition metal catalyzing Fenton reaction is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms for HO• production, in which ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to generate HO•. Consequently, the absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline-iron (II) complex ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) was tested here at 536 nm. After adding H2O2, ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) was oxidized by H2O2 to generate HO•. The absorbance of the control sample (no BCE) was the lowest due to the decreasing ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+). The addition of antioxidants can prevent ([Fe(o-phen)3]2+) from oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, so that the efficiency of the scavenging hydroxyl radical can be determined. Compared to the controls, an increased absorbance was observed of which the magnitude corresponded to the concentration of BCE (Figure 3). The antioxidant compounds in BCE could reduce the oxidation of HO•, and the absorbance of BCE groups was close to the blank by chelating reaction of Fe2+ and phenanthroline. The BCE was capable of inhibiting the hydroxyl radical greatly in a concentration-dependent fashion. As can be seen in Figure 4, with increasing concentration of BCE, the inhibitory effect was enhanced greatly. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (%) of max concentration was 82.7%.

Bottom Line: In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active.In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE) showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II) oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms.The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China.

ABSTRACT
Black corals (BC) have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs). We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (CO₂-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc.) were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS). In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE) showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II) oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus