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Carotenoid β-ring hydroxylase and ketolase from marine bacteria-promiscuous enzymes for synthesizing functional xanthophylls.

Misawa N - Mar Drugs (2011)

Bottom Line: In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2')-hydroxylase (CrtG).This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes.Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2')-hydroxylated carotenoids).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Bioresources and Biotechnology, Ishikawa Prefectural University, Suematsu, Nonoichi-machi, Ishikawa 921-8836, Japan. n-misawa@ishikawa-pu.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C₄₀-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4')-ketolase (4(4')-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3')-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2')-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2')-hydroxylated carotenoids).

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Catalytic functions of carotenoid 4,4′-ketolases (oxygenases) and carotenoid 3′3′-hydroxylases. BKT means BKT1 or BKT2 from H. pluvialis.
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f4-marinedrugs-09-00757: Catalytic functions of carotenoid 4,4′-ketolases (oxygenases) and carotenoid 3′3′-hydroxylases. BKT means BKT1 or BKT2 from H. pluvialis.

Mentions: It has been revealed that only two enzymes, carotenoid 4,4′-ketolase (4,4′-oxygenase) (β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase; CrtW) and carotenoid 3,3′-hydroxylase (β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase; CrtZ), are sufficient to biosynthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene via eight intermediates including zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and adonixanthin [35,40,41]. CrtW can convert not only the (un-substituted) β ring but also the 3-hydroxylated β ring into the respective 4-ketolated groups, and CrtZ can convert not only the (un-substituted) β ring but also the 4-ketolated β-ring into the respective 3-hydroxylated groups, as shown in Figure 4 [42–46]. An in vitro analysis with the crude enzymes of CrtW and CrtZ from the E. coli cells expressing the corresponding genes indicated that these enzymes are likely 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate)-dependent dioxygenases [42].


Carotenoid β-ring hydroxylase and ketolase from marine bacteria-promiscuous enzymes for synthesizing functional xanthophylls.

Misawa N - Mar Drugs (2011)

Catalytic functions of carotenoid 4,4′-ketolases (oxygenases) and carotenoid 3′3′-hydroxylases. BKT means BKT1 or BKT2 from H. pluvialis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111180&req=5

f4-marinedrugs-09-00757: Catalytic functions of carotenoid 4,4′-ketolases (oxygenases) and carotenoid 3′3′-hydroxylases. BKT means BKT1 or BKT2 from H. pluvialis.
Mentions: It has been revealed that only two enzymes, carotenoid 4,4′-ketolase (4,4′-oxygenase) (β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase; CrtW) and carotenoid 3,3′-hydroxylase (β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase; CrtZ), are sufficient to biosynthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene via eight intermediates including zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and adonixanthin [35,40,41]. CrtW can convert not only the (un-substituted) β ring but also the 3-hydroxylated β ring into the respective 4-ketolated groups, and CrtZ can convert not only the (un-substituted) β ring but also the 4-ketolated β-ring into the respective 3-hydroxylated groups, as shown in Figure 4 [42–46]. An in vitro analysis with the crude enzymes of CrtW and CrtZ from the E. coli cells expressing the corresponding genes indicated that these enzymes are likely 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate)-dependent dioxygenases [42].

Bottom Line: In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2')-hydroxylase (CrtG).This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes.Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2')-hydroxylated carotenoids).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Bioresources and Biotechnology, Ishikawa Prefectural University, Suematsu, Nonoichi-machi, Ishikawa 921-8836, Japan. n-misawa@ishikawa-pu.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C₄₀-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4')-ketolase (4(4')-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3')-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2')-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2')-hydroxylated carotenoids).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus