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Anti-phytopathogenic activities of macro-algae extracts.

Jiménez E, Dorta F, Medina C, Ramírez A, Ramírez I, Peña-Cortés H - Mar Drugs (2011)

Bottom Line: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time.Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent.These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology Center "D. Alkalay L.", Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avda. España 1680, Valparaiso, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

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Effect of extracts obtained from Chilean seaweeds on growth of Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae. Crude aqueous (A and C) and 50% ethanolic extracts (B and D) isolated from Lessonia trabeculata (LT), Macrocystis pyrifera (MP), Gracilaria chilensis (GC), Gigartina skottsbergii (GS), Porphyra columbina (PC), Ulva costata (UC), Lessonia nigrescens (LN), Durvillaea antarctica (DA) and Macrocystis integrifolia (MI) collected in season 1 (black boxes), season 2 (white boxes), season 3 (light gray boxes) and season 4 (dark gray boxes) at a concentration of 10,000 ppm were incubated with E. carotovora (A and B, respectively) or with P. syringae (C and D) as described in Experimental Section. Negative control [C(–)] represents bacteria growing in media without algae extracts whereas positive control [C(+)] corresponds to bacteria growing in media containing 5 μM streptomycin. The activities of the extracts were evaluated in microculture assays by growing bacteria as described in the Experimental Section. All values represent mean of triplicate determinations ± standard deviation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from control cell cultures are marked with an asterisk.
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f1-marinedrugs-09-00739: Effect of extracts obtained from Chilean seaweeds on growth of Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae. Crude aqueous (A and C) and 50% ethanolic extracts (B and D) isolated from Lessonia trabeculata (LT), Macrocystis pyrifera (MP), Gracilaria chilensis (GC), Gigartina skottsbergii (GS), Porphyra columbina (PC), Ulva costata (UC), Lessonia nigrescens (LN), Durvillaea antarctica (DA) and Macrocystis integrifolia (MI) collected in season 1 (black boxes), season 2 (white boxes), season 3 (light gray boxes) and season 4 (dark gray boxes) at a concentration of 10,000 ppm were incubated with E. carotovora (A and B, respectively) or with P. syringae (C and D) as described in Experimental Section. Negative control [C(–)] represents bacteria growing in media without algae extracts whereas positive control [C(+)] corresponds to bacteria growing in media containing 5 μM streptomycin. The activities of the extracts were evaluated in microculture assays by growing bacteria as described in the Experimental Section. All values represent mean of triplicate determinations ± standard deviation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from control cell cultures are marked with an asterisk.

Mentions: The algal extracts were tested for inhibitory activity against two plant pathogenic strains: Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae. Extracts in different concentrations were incubated with the bacteria in the corresponding growth media. Aqueous extracts obtained from all algae, independently of the season, did not alter bacterial growth (Figure 1A,C). From the ethanolic extracts, only those obtained from L. trabeculata collected in summer (season 1) and autumn (season 2) showed an inhibitory effect of around 40–60% in comparison to the control ones—against both E. carotovora (Figure 1B) and P. syringae (Figure 1D)—whereas those obtained from M. integrifolia in springtime (season 3) partially reduced (around 50% of the negative control) the growth of P. syringae (Figure 1D). Such effects were observed solely by using a medium containing high extract concentration (10,000 ppm). Lower amounts of extracts in the growth medium did not show an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. Similarly, the presence of higher extract concentration in the medium did not increase the observed inhibitory effect (data not shown). The results suggest that active compounds are present in LT and MP ethanolic extracts. The extracts are able to affect bacterial growth and their activity is dose- and season- dependent.


Anti-phytopathogenic activities of macro-algae extracts.

Jiménez E, Dorta F, Medina C, Ramírez A, Ramírez I, Peña-Cortés H - Mar Drugs (2011)

Effect of extracts obtained from Chilean seaweeds on growth of Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae. Crude aqueous (A and C) and 50% ethanolic extracts (B and D) isolated from Lessonia trabeculata (LT), Macrocystis pyrifera (MP), Gracilaria chilensis (GC), Gigartina skottsbergii (GS), Porphyra columbina (PC), Ulva costata (UC), Lessonia nigrescens (LN), Durvillaea antarctica (DA) and Macrocystis integrifolia (MI) collected in season 1 (black boxes), season 2 (white boxes), season 3 (light gray boxes) and season 4 (dark gray boxes) at a concentration of 10,000 ppm were incubated with E. carotovora (A and B, respectively) or with P. syringae (C and D) as described in Experimental Section. Negative control [C(–)] represents bacteria growing in media without algae extracts whereas positive control [C(+)] corresponds to bacteria growing in media containing 5 μM streptomycin. The activities of the extracts were evaluated in microculture assays by growing bacteria as described in the Experimental Section. All values represent mean of triplicate determinations ± standard deviation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from control cell cultures are marked with an asterisk.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111179&req=5

f1-marinedrugs-09-00739: Effect of extracts obtained from Chilean seaweeds on growth of Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae. Crude aqueous (A and C) and 50% ethanolic extracts (B and D) isolated from Lessonia trabeculata (LT), Macrocystis pyrifera (MP), Gracilaria chilensis (GC), Gigartina skottsbergii (GS), Porphyra columbina (PC), Ulva costata (UC), Lessonia nigrescens (LN), Durvillaea antarctica (DA) and Macrocystis integrifolia (MI) collected in season 1 (black boxes), season 2 (white boxes), season 3 (light gray boxes) and season 4 (dark gray boxes) at a concentration of 10,000 ppm were incubated with E. carotovora (A and B, respectively) or with P. syringae (C and D) as described in Experimental Section. Negative control [C(–)] represents bacteria growing in media without algae extracts whereas positive control [C(+)] corresponds to bacteria growing in media containing 5 μM streptomycin. The activities of the extracts were evaluated in microculture assays by growing bacteria as described in the Experimental Section. All values represent mean of triplicate determinations ± standard deviation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from control cell cultures are marked with an asterisk.
Mentions: The algal extracts were tested for inhibitory activity against two plant pathogenic strains: Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae. Extracts in different concentrations were incubated with the bacteria in the corresponding growth media. Aqueous extracts obtained from all algae, independently of the season, did not alter bacterial growth (Figure 1A,C). From the ethanolic extracts, only those obtained from L. trabeculata collected in summer (season 1) and autumn (season 2) showed an inhibitory effect of around 40–60% in comparison to the control ones—against both E. carotovora (Figure 1B) and P. syringae (Figure 1D)—whereas those obtained from M. integrifolia in springtime (season 3) partially reduced (around 50% of the negative control) the growth of P. syringae (Figure 1D). Such effects were observed solely by using a medium containing high extract concentration (10,000 ppm). Lower amounts of extracts in the growth medium did not show an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. Similarly, the presence of higher extract concentration in the medium did not increase the observed inhibitory effect (data not shown). The results suggest that active compounds are present in LT and MP ethanolic extracts. The extracts are able to affect bacterial growth and their activity is dose- and season- dependent.

Bottom Line: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time.Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent.These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology Center "D. Alkalay L.", Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avda. España 1680, Valparaiso, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus