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Facial emotion and identity processing development in 5- to 15-year-old children.

Johnston PJ, Kaufman J, Bajic J, Sercombe A, Michie PT, Karayanidis F - Front Psychol (2011)

Bottom Line: Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement.Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks.More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of York York, UK.

ABSTRACT
Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching, and butterfly wing matching) to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

No MeSH data available.


Behavioral measures for each task arranged by age group.
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Figure 2: Behavioral measures for each task arranged by age group.

Mentions: The first phase of analyses was run using discrete age groups in order to be readily comparable with most previous literature in the area which uses non-continuous age groups. The three tasks were compared on each dependent variable with age group and gender as between subject variables 4 Age Group × 2 Gender × 3 Task (Butterfly, Identity, Emotion) mixed design ANOVA, with Greenhouse–Geisser correction on the task factor. Significant effects of task were examined using two planned contrasts with Bonferroni adjustment of family wise error rate (a = 0.05/2 = 0.025). One compared discrimination of physical features of non-facial (Butterfly) vs. facial (Identity) stimuli and the other compared discrimination of faces on the basis of physical features (Identity) vs. facial expression (Emotion). Significant effects of age were examined in the first instance using repeated contrasts between successive age groups. This consistently resulted in no difference between middle and older children groups (see also Figure 2). Therefore, in order to maximize statistical power when examining developmental changes, we compared young children and adults to the combined group of middle and older children in two separate ANOVAs (2 Age Group × 2 Gender × 3 Task mixed design) using Bonferroni correction on family wise error rate (a = 0.05/2 = 0.025) for the age factor. So, when comparing young and older children or older children and adults, age main effects, and interactions are only reported if the F-value is significant at p < 0.025. Independent group t-tests were used to compare groups for each task alone (a = 0.05/3 = 0.016).


Facial emotion and identity processing development in 5- to 15-year-old children.

Johnston PJ, Kaufman J, Bajic J, Sercombe A, Michie PT, Karayanidis F - Front Psychol (2011)

Behavioral measures for each task arranged by age group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111136&req=5

Figure 2: Behavioral measures for each task arranged by age group.
Mentions: The first phase of analyses was run using discrete age groups in order to be readily comparable with most previous literature in the area which uses non-continuous age groups. The three tasks were compared on each dependent variable with age group and gender as between subject variables 4 Age Group × 2 Gender × 3 Task (Butterfly, Identity, Emotion) mixed design ANOVA, with Greenhouse–Geisser correction on the task factor. Significant effects of task were examined using two planned contrasts with Bonferroni adjustment of family wise error rate (a = 0.05/2 = 0.025). One compared discrimination of physical features of non-facial (Butterfly) vs. facial (Identity) stimuli and the other compared discrimination of faces on the basis of physical features (Identity) vs. facial expression (Emotion). Significant effects of age were examined in the first instance using repeated contrasts between successive age groups. This consistently resulted in no difference between middle and older children groups (see also Figure 2). Therefore, in order to maximize statistical power when examining developmental changes, we compared young children and adults to the combined group of middle and older children in two separate ANOVAs (2 Age Group × 2 Gender × 3 Task mixed design) using Bonferroni correction on family wise error rate (a = 0.05/2 = 0.025) for the age factor. So, when comparing young and older children or older children and adults, age main effects, and interactions are only reported if the F-value is significant at p < 0.025. Independent group t-tests were used to compare groups for each task alone (a = 0.05/3 = 0.016).

Bottom Line: Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement.Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks.More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of York York, UK.

ABSTRACT
Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching, and butterfly wing matching) to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

No MeSH data available.