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Incidence of agenesis of palmaris longus in the Andhra population of India.

Sankar KD, Bhanu PS, John SP - Indian J Plast Surg (2011)

Bottom Line: Slight modifications of the prevailing methods can still give authenticate results.The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral agenesis was more common on left side with a greater likelihood in the female subjects.The proposed technique could bring better results in all subjects and can be implemented in manual examination of PL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Narayana Group of Medical Institutions, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: The knowledge of Palmaris longus (PL) is a growing interest for its wide role in reconstructive plastic surgeries as a donor tendon for transfer or transplant. The prevalence of the PL agenesis has been well-documented by many authors in different ethnic groups or populations. Many conventional tests for determining the presence of the PL has been described, but lamentably there are many discrepancies in confirming its presence or absence. Slight modifications of the prevailing methods can still give authenticate results.

Aim: This prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of unilateral and bilateral agenesis of PL and its association with sex and side of the limb in the Andhra population of India.

Materials and methods: A total of 942 subjects of both sexes belonging to 18-23 years were used to access the PL using various tendon examination techniques including our modified Schaeffer's test. The data collected were analyzed by Pearsons χ(2) test using SPSS software.

Results: Overall agenesis of muscle in both sexes was 264 (28.0%), out of which 40.2% was seen in females and 14.7% in males with the ratio of 3:1. The unilateral agenesis was seen in 70.5% and bilateral agenesis in 29.5% subjects. The left side agenesis was seen in 51.6% and right side in 48.4% subjects.

Conclusions: The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral agenesis was more common on left side with a greater likelihood in the female subjects. The proposed technique could bring better results in all subjects and can be implemented in manual examination of PL.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Schaeffer's test – opposition of thumb to little finger with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, (b) Thompson's test – opposed thumb over clenched fist with flexion at wrist. Arrow n- Palmaris longus tendon, (c) Mishra's 1st test – hyperextension of fingers at metacarpo-phalangeal joint with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, Arrow head – Flexor carpi radialis tendon, (d) Pushpakumar's test – extension of index and middle finger with opposed thumb over medial two fingers. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon
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Figure 1: (a) Schaeffer's test – opposition of thumb to little finger with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, (b) Thompson's test – opposed thumb over clenched fist with flexion at wrist. Arrow n- Palmaris longus tendon, (c) Mishra's 1st test – hyperextension of fingers at metacarpo-phalangeal joint with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, Arrow head – Flexor carpi radialis tendon, (d) Pushpakumar's test – extension of index and middle finger with opposed thumb over medial two fingers. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon

Mentions: A group of 942 first and second year medical, dental and paramedical students (450 boys and 492 girls) of age group 18-23 years from Narayana Group of Medical Institutions, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India were randomly used for this study. Those who are having any deformities or injury in the upper extremity were strictly excluded from the present study. In this present study, the prevalence of presence or absence of PL was determined by series of tendon examination techniques described by Schaeffer's test,[9] Thompson's fist,[10] Mishra's 1st test,[11] Pushpakumar's two finger sign[12] [Figure 1a–d] and our modified Schaeffer's technique [Figure 2].


Incidence of agenesis of palmaris longus in the Andhra population of India.

Sankar KD, Bhanu PS, John SP - Indian J Plast Surg (2011)

(a) Schaeffer's test – opposition of thumb to little finger with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, (b) Thompson's test – opposed thumb over clenched fist with flexion at wrist. Arrow n- Palmaris longus tendon, (c) Mishra's 1st test – hyperextension of fingers at metacarpo-phalangeal joint with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, Arrow head – Flexor carpi radialis tendon, (d) Pushpakumar's test – extension of index and middle finger with opposed thumb over medial two fingers. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111105&req=5

Figure 1: (a) Schaeffer's test – opposition of thumb to little finger with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, (b) Thompson's test – opposed thumb over clenched fist with flexion at wrist. Arrow n- Palmaris longus tendon, (c) Mishra's 1st test – hyperextension of fingers at metacarpo-phalangeal joint with flexion at wrist. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon, Arrow head – Flexor carpi radialis tendon, (d) Pushpakumar's test – extension of index and middle finger with opposed thumb over medial two fingers. Arrow – Palmaris longus tendon
Mentions: A group of 942 first and second year medical, dental and paramedical students (450 boys and 492 girls) of age group 18-23 years from Narayana Group of Medical Institutions, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India were randomly used for this study. Those who are having any deformities or injury in the upper extremity were strictly excluded from the present study. In this present study, the prevalence of presence or absence of PL was determined by series of tendon examination techniques described by Schaeffer's test,[9] Thompson's fist,[10] Mishra's 1st test,[11] Pushpakumar's two finger sign[12] [Figure 1a–d] and our modified Schaeffer's technique [Figure 2].

Bottom Line: Slight modifications of the prevailing methods can still give authenticate results.The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral agenesis was more common on left side with a greater likelihood in the female subjects.The proposed technique could bring better results in all subjects and can be implemented in manual examination of PL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Narayana Group of Medical Institutions, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: The knowledge of Palmaris longus (PL) is a growing interest for its wide role in reconstructive plastic surgeries as a donor tendon for transfer or transplant. The prevalence of the PL agenesis has been well-documented by many authors in different ethnic groups or populations. Many conventional tests for determining the presence of the PL has been described, but lamentably there are many discrepancies in confirming its presence or absence. Slight modifications of the prevailing methods can still give authenticate results.

Aim: This prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of unilateral and bilateral agenesis of PL and its association with sex and side of the limb in the Andhra population of India.

Materials and methods: A total of 942 subjects of both sexes belonging to 18-23 years were used to access the PL using various tendon examination techniques including our modified Schaeffer's test. The data collected were analyzed by Pearsons χ(2) test using SPSS software.

Results: Overall agenesis of muscle in both sexes was 264 (28.0%), out of which 40.2% was seen in females and 14.7% in males with the ratio of 3:1. The unilateral agenesis was seen in 70.5% and bilateral agenesis in 29.5% subjects. The left side agenesis was seen in 51.6% and right side in 48.4% subjects.

Conclusions: The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral agenesis was more common on left side with a greater likelihood in the female subjects. The proposed technique could bring better results in all subjects and can be implemented in manual examination of PL.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus