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Succumbing to bottom-up biases on task choice predicts increased switch costs in the voluntary task switching paradigm.

Orr JM, Weissman DH - Front Psychol (2011)

Bottom Line: Definitive support for this hypothesis is lacking, however, because task choice and task performance are usually confounded.As predicted, participants tended to choose the task that was primed by bottom-up biases.These findings provide compelling evidence that bottom-up biases influence voluntary task choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Bottom-up biases are widely thought to influence task choice in the voluntary task switching paradigm. Definitive support for this hypothesis is lacking, however, because task choice and task performance are usually confounded. We therefore revisited this hypothesis using a paradigm in which task choice and task performance are temporally separated. As predicted, participants tended to choose the task that was primed by bottom-up biases. Moreover, such choices were linked to increased switch costs during subsequent task performance. These findings provide compelling evidence that bottom-up biases influence voluntary task choice. They also suggest that succumbing to such biases reflects a reduction of top-down control that persists to influence upcoming task performance.

No MeSH data available.


Switch costs (i. e., incongruent RT–congruent RT) were larger in congruent task choice trials than in either incongruent or neutral task choice trials. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
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Figure 4: Switch costs (i. e., incongruent RT–congruent RT) were larger in congruent task choice trials than in either incongruent or neutral task choice trials. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: We were particularly interested in whether these effects were present in voluntary task choice trials. We therefore conducted planned comparisons to determine the effect of cue congruency on switch costs separately in voluntary and explicit task choice trials. As predicted, switch costs were larger in congruent (67 ms) than in either incongruent [33 ms; F(1,52) = 8.0, p < 0.01] or neutral [40 ms; F(1,52) = 6.4, p = 0.01] voluntary task choice trials (Figure 4). In contrast, switch costs in congruent explicit task choice trials (74 ms) did not differ from those in either incongruent [61 ms; F(1,52) = 1.6, n.s.] or neutral [60 ms; F(1,52) = 2.2, n.s.] explicit task choice trials. Nonetheless, in line with our second main hypothesis, our findings in voluntary task choice trials suggest that less top-down control was recruited during task performance in congruent as compared to either incongruent or neutral task choice trials.


Succumbing to bottom-up biases on task choice predicts increased switch costs in the voluntary task switching paradigm.

Orr JM, Weissman DH - Front Psychol (2011)

Switch costs (i. e., incongruent RT–congruent RT) were larger in congruent task choice trials than in either incongruent or neutral task choice trials. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3111096&req=5

Figure 4: Switch costs (i. e., incongruent RT–congruent RT) were larger in congruent task choice trials than in either incongruent or neutral task choice trials. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: We were particularly interested in whether these effects were present in voluntary task choice trials. We therefore conducted planned comparisons to determine the effect of cue congruency on switch costs separately in voluntary and explicit task choice trials. As predicted, switch costs were larger in congruent (67 ms) than in either incongruent [33 ms; F(1,52) = 8.0, p < 0.01] or neutral [40 ms; F(1,52) = 6.4, p = 0.01] voluntary task choice trials (Figure 4). In contrast, switch costs in congruent explicit task choice trials (74 ms) did not differ from those in either incongruent [61 ms; F(1,52) = 1.6, n.s.] or neutral [60 ms; F(1,52) = 2.2, n.s.] explicit task choice trials. Nonetheless, in line with our second main hypothesis, our findings in voluntary task choice trials suggest that less top-down control was recruited during task performance in congruent as compared to either incongruent or neutral task choice trials.

Bottom Line: Definitive support for this hypothesis is lacking, however, because task choice and task performance are usually confounded.As predicted, participants tended to choose the task that was primed by bottom-up biases.These findings provide compelling evidence that bottom-up biases influence voluntary task choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Bottom-up biases are widely thought to influence task choice in the voluntary task switching paradigm. Definitive support for this hypothesis is lacking, however, because task choice and task performance are usually confounded. We therefore revisited this hypothesis using a paradigm in which task choice and task performance are temporally separated. As predicted, participants tended to choose the task that was primed by bottom-up biases. Moreover, such choices were linked to increased switch costs during subsequent task performance. These findings provide compelling evidence that bottom-up biases influence voluntary task choice. They also suggest that succumbing to such biases reflects a reduction of top-down control that persists to influence upcoming task performance.

No MeSH data available.