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A parametric study delineating irreversible electroporation from thermal damage based on a minimally invasive intracranial procedure.

Garcia PA, Rossmeisl JH, Neal RE, Ellis TL, Davalos RV - Biomed Eng Online (2011)

Bottom Line: We developed numerical simulations of typical protocols based on a previously published computed tomographic (CT) guided in vivo procedure.We confirm that determining an IRE treatment protocol requires incorporating all the physical effects of electroporation, and that these effects may have significant implications in treatment planning and outcome assessment.The goal of the manuscript is to provide the reader with the numerical methods to assess multiple-pulse electroporation treatment protocols in order to isolate IRE from thermal damage and capitalize on the benefits of a non-thermal mode of tissue ablation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioelectromechanical Systems Laboratory, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new minimally invasive technique to kill undesirable tissue in a non-thermal manner. In order to maximize the benefits from an IRE procedure, the pulse parameters and electrode configuration must be optimized to achieve complete coverage of the targeted tissue while preventing thermal damage due to excessive Joule heating.

Methods: We developed numerical simulations of typical protocols based on a previously published computed tomographic (CT) guided in vivo procedure. These models were adapted to assess the effects of temperature, electroporation, pulse duration, and repetition rate on the volumes of tissue undergoing IRE alone or in superposition with thermal damage.

Results: Nine different combinations of voltage and pulse frequency were investigated, five of which resulted in IRE alone while four produced IRE in superposition with thermal damage.

Conclusions: The parametric study evaluated the influence of pulse frequency and applied voltage on treatment volumes, and refined a proposed method to delineate IRE from thermal damage. We confirm that determining an IRE treatment protocol requires incorporating all the physical effects of electroporation, and that these effects may have significant implications in treatment planning and outcome assessment. The goal of the manuscript is to provide the reader with the numerical methods to assess multiple-pulse electroporation treatment protocols in order to isolate IRE from thermal damage and capitalize on the benefits of a non-thermal mode of tissue ablation.

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Schematic of the brain and electrode configuration used in the numerical models. The thermal probes used to measure the temperature during the experimental procedure are shown in light gray on the right panel. Probe 1 (P1) and probe 2 (P2) were located near the electrode tip and 10 mm along the insulation of the other electrode, respectively.
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Figure 2: Schematic of the brain and electrode configuration used in the numerical models. The thermal probes used to measure the temperature during the experimental procedure are shown in light gray on the right panel. Probe 1 (P1) and probe 2 (P2) were located near the electrode tip and 10 mm along the insulation of the other electrode, respectively.

Mentions: Temperatures were measured in the brain during the procedure using the Luxtron® m3300 Biomedical Lab Kit Fluoroptic® Thermometer and STB medical fiber optic probes (LumaSense™ Technologies, Santa Clara, CA USA). The probes, which are immune to electromagnetic interference, consist of a fiber optic cable terminated with a temperature sensitive phosphorescent sensor. Pulsed light strikes the phosphorescent element causing it to fluoresce. The decay time of this fluorescent signal is temperature dependent and is measured with an accuracy of ± 0.2°C. In order to minimize the invasiveness of the procedure, the thermal probes were placed within a 0.78 mm outer diameter polyimide tubing that was attached near the tip of the electrode-tissue interface and 10 mm along the insulation as seen in Figure 2[23]. The data acquisition was performed with TrueTemp™ software (Version 2.0, Luxtron® Corporation, Santa Clara, CA USA) in which each probe was set to a recording frequency of 2 Hz. The measured temperature was imported into Wolfram Mathematica 6.0 for students (Champaign, IL USA) for analysis. The oscillatory data was smoothed with the moving average command in which each data point reported is the average of the neighboring ± 10 data points. We present the raw and the smoothed versions of the temperature data in the results section.


A parametric study delineating irreversible electroporation from thermal damage based on a minimally invasive intracranial procedure.

Garcia PA, Rossmeisl JH, Neal RE, Ellis TL, Davalos RV - Biomed Eng Online (2011)

Schematic of the brain and electrode configuration used in the numerical models. The thermal probes used to measure the temperature during the experimental procedure are shown in light gray on the right panel. Probe 1 (P1) and probe 2 (P2) were located near the electrode tip and 10 mm along the insulation of the other electrode, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108916&req=5

Figure 2: Schematic of the brain and electrode configuration used in the numerical models. The thermal probes used to measure the temperature during the experimental procedure are shown in light gray on the right panel. Probe 1 (P1) and probe 2 (P2) were located near the electrode tip and 10 mm along the insulation of the other electrode, respectively.
Mentions: Temperatures were measured in the brain during the procedure using the Luxtron® m3300 Biomedical Lab Kit Fluoroptic® Thermometer and STB medical fiber optic probes (LumaSense™ Technologies, Santa Clara, CA USA). The probes, which are immune to electromagnetic interference, consist of a fiber optic cable terminated with a temperature sensitive phosphorescent sensor. Pulsed light strikes the phosphorescent element causing it to fluoresce. The decay time of this fluorescent signal is temperature dependent and is measured with an accuracy of ± 0.2°C. In order to minimize the invasiveness of the procedure, the thermal probes were placed within a 0.78 mm outer diameter polyimide tubing that was attached near the tip of the electrode-tissue interface and 10 mm along the insulation as seen in Figure 2[23]. The data acquisition was performed with TrueTemp™ software (Version 2.0, Luxtron® Corporation, Santa Clara, CA USA) in which each probe was set to a recording frequency of 2 Hz. The measured temperature was imported into Wolfram Mathematica 6.0 for students (Champaign, IL USA) for analysis. The oscillatory data was smoothed with the moving average command in which each data point reported is the average of the neighboring ± 10 data points. We present the raw and the smoothed versions of the temperature data in the results section.

Bottom Line: We developed numerical simulations of typical protocols based on a previously published computed tomographic (CT) guided in vivo procedure.We confirm that determining an IRE treatment protocol requires incorporating all the physical effects of electroporation, and that these effects may have significant implications in treatment planning and outcome assessment.The goal of the manuscript is to provide the reader with the numerical methods to assess multiple-pulse electroporation treatment protocols in order to isolate IRE from thermal damage and capitalize on the benefits of a non-thermal mode of tissue ablation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioelectromechanical Systems Laboratory, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new minimally invasive technique to kill undesirable tissue in a non-thermal manner. In order to maximize the benefits from an IRE procedure, the pulse parameters and electrode configuration must be optimized to achieve complete coverage of the targeted tissue while preventing thermal damage due to excessive Joule heating.

Methods: We developed numerical simulations of typical protocols based on a previously published computed tomographic (CT) guided in vivo procedure. These models were adapted to assess the effects of temperature, electroporation, pulse duration, and repetition rate on the volumes of tissue undergoing IRE alone or in superposition with thermal damage.

Results: Nine different combinations of voltage and pulse frequency were investigated, five of which resulted in IRE alone while four produced IRE in superposition with thermal damage.

Conclusions: The parametric study evaluated the influence of pulse frequency and applied voltage on treatment volumes, and refined a proposed method to delineate IRE from thermal damage. We confirm that determining an IRE treatment protocol requires incorporating all the physical effects of electroporation, and that these effects may have significant implications in treatment planning and outcome assessment. The goal of the manuscript is to provide the reader with the numerical methods to assess multiple-pulse electroporation treatment protocols in order to isolate IRE from thermal damage and capitalize on the benefits of a non-thermal mode of tissue ablation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus