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Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in the chick eye and their regulation with imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus.

Penha AM, Schaeffel F, Feldkaemper M - Mol. Vis. (2011)

Bottom Line: Insulin stimulates eye growth in chicks and this effect is greatly enhanced if the retinal image is degraded by the defocus of either sign.IR mRNA was found in all the studied tissues, although there is evidence of tissue-specific transcript variations.In the retina, no significant gene expression changes were found when defocus was imposed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Eye Hospital, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Section of Neurobiology of the Eye, Tuebingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Insulin stimulates eye growth in chicks and this effect is greatly enhanced if the retinal image is degraded by the defocus of either sign. However, it is unclear whether the insulin receptor (IR) is expressed at all in the chicken retina in animals 1-2 weeks post-hatching. We have investigated IR expression and whether IR transcript abundance varies in the fundal layers. To elucidate the possible role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling in eye growth regulation, mRNA (mRNA) levels were measured for insulin, IGF-1, IR, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) during imposed negative or positive defocus.

Methods: Chicks were treated binocularly with positive or negative spectacle lenses for 4 or 24 h, or they remained untreated (n=6, for each treatment group). Northern blot analyses were performed to screen for transcription variants in the different fundal layers of untreated animals. Real-time PCR was used to quantify IR, IGF-1R, IGF-1, and insulin mRNA levels in the different fundal layers of the chick eye in the three treatment groups.

Results: IR mRNA was found in all the studied tissues, although there is evidence of tissue-specific transcript variations. Three major transcripts were detected for IR. The brain, retina, and choroid showed the longest transcript (4.3 kb), which was not present in the liver. Nevertheless, the liver and brain showed a second transcript (2.6 kb) not present in the retina and choroid. A short transcript (1.3 kb) was the predominant form in the liver and choroid, and it seems to be present in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and sclera as well. In the retina, no significant gene expression changes were found when defocus was imposed. Interestingly, in the RPE, both IR and IGF-1R were already downregulated after short periods (4 h) of positive lens wear. In contrast, IR and IGF-1R were upregulated in the choroid and fibrous sclera during treatment with negative, but not positive, lenses.

Conclusions: Differences observed in the IR transcript length in different tissues suggest possibly different functions. The differential regulation of IR and IGF-1R in the RPE, choroid, and fibrous sclera is consistent with their involvement in a signaling cascade for emmetropization.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor–1 receptor mRNA levels after 4 and 24 h of plus (+7D) and minus (−7D) lens treatment in the retinal pigment epithelium. Results are expressed as the mean normalized expression (MNE)±SEM. For the 4 h experiment, six animals per groups were used; 9 per group were used for the 24 h experiment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control as determined by one-way ANOVA (ANOVA) are denoted in the graph (* for p<0.05). Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA levels were lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to untreated control animals. In addition, IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to the minus lens–treated animals. After 24 h of lens treatment, there were no significant differences in all genes, between all groups.
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f5: Insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor–1 receptor mRNA levels after 4 and 24 h of plus (+7D) and minus (−7D) lens treatment in the retinal pigment epithelium. Results are expressed as the mean normalized expression (MNE)±SEM. For the 4 h experiment, six animals per groups were used; 9 per group were used for the 24 h experiment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control as determined by one-way ANOVA (ANOVA) are denoted in the graph (* for p<0.05). Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA levels were lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to untreated control animals. In addition, IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to the minus lens–treated animals. After 24 h of lens treatment, there were no significant differences in all genes, between all groups.

Mentions: Four hours of myopic defocus induced a twofold downregulation of IR and an approximately fourfold downregulation of IGF-1R mRNA levels, compared to the respective control groups (Figure 5, ANOVA, IR, plus lens versus control p=0.03; IGF-1R, plus lens versus control p=0.03). This effect disappeared when the animals were treated with lenses for 24 h. In comparison to the levels in control animals, lens treatment did not significantly influence IGF-1 mRNA levels after 4 or 24 h. Nevertheless, IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower after 4 h of positive lens wear compared to 4 h of negative lens wear (ANOVA, minus versus plus p=0.05).


Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in the chick eye and their regulation with imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus.

Penha AM, Schaeffel F, Feldkaemper M - Mol. Vis. (2011)

Insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor–1 receptor mRNA levels after 4 and 24 h of plus (+7D) and minus (−7D) lens treatment in the retinal pigment epithelium. Results are expressed as the mean normalized expression (MNE)±SEM. For the 4 h experiment, six animals per groups were used; 9 per group were used for the 24 h experiment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control as determined by one-way ANOVA (ANOVA) are denoted in the graph (* for p<0.05). Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA levels were lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to untreated control animals. In addition, IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to the minus lens–treated animals. After 24 h of lens treatment, there were no significant differences in all genes, between all groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108898&req=5

f5: Insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor–1 receptor mRNA levels after 4 and 24 h of plus (+7D) and minus (−7D) lens treatment in the retinal pigment epithelium. Results are expressed as the mean normalized expression (MNE)±SEM. For the 4 h experiment, six animals per groups were used; 9 per group were used for the 24 h experiment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control as determined by one-way ANOVA (ANOVA) are denoted in the graph (* for p<0.05). Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA levels were lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to untreated control animals. In addition, IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower after 4 h of plus lens treatment compared to the minus lens–treated animals. After 24 h of lens treatment, there were no significant differences in all genes, between all groups.
Mentions: Four hours of myopic defocus induced a twofold downregulation of IR and an approximately fourfold downregulation of IGF-1R mRNA levels, compared to the respective control groups (Figure 5, ANOVA, IR, plus lens versus control p=0.03; IGF-1R, plus lens versus control p=0.03). This effect disappeared when the animals were treated with lenses for 24 h. In comparison to the levels in control animals, lens treatment did not significantly influence IGF-1 mRNA levels after 4 or 24 h. Nevertheless, IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower after 4 h of positive lens wear compared to 4 h of negative lens wear (ANOVA, minus versus plus p=0.05).

Bottom Line: Insulin stimulates eye growth in chicks and this effect is greatly enhanced if the retinal image is degraded by the defocus of either sign.IR mRNA was found in all the studied tissues, although there is evidence of tissue-specific transcript variations.In the retina, no significant gene expression changes were found when defocus was imposed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Eye Hospital, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Section of Neurobiology of the Eye, Tuebingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Insulin stimulates eye growth in chicks and this effect is greatly enhanced if the retinal image is degraded by the defocus of either sign. However, it is unclear whether the insulin receptor (IR) is expressed at all in the chicken retina in animals 1-2 weeks post-hatching. We have investigated IR expression and whether IR transcript abundance varies in the fundal layers. To elucidate the possible role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling in eye growth regulation, mRNA (mRNA) levels were measured for insulin, IGF-1, IR, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) during imposed negative or positive defocus.

Methods: Chicks were treated binocularly with positive or negative spectacle lenses for 4 or 24 h, or they remained untreated (n=6, for each treatment group). Northern blot analyses were performed to screen for transcription variants in the different fundal layers of untreated animals. Real-time PCR was used to quantify IR, IGF-1R, IGF-1, and insulin mRNA levels in the different fundal layers of the chick eye in the three treatment groups.

Results: IR mRNA was found in all the studied tissues, although there is evidence of tissue-specific transcript variations. Three major transcripts were detected for IR. The brain, retina, and choroid showed the longest transcript (4.3 kb), which was not present in the liver. Nevertheless, the liver and brain showed a second transcript (2.6 kb) not present in the retina and choroid. A short transcript (1.3 kb) was the predominant form in the liver and choroid, and it seems to be present in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and sclera as well. In the retina, no significant gene expression changes were found when defocus was imposed. Interestingly, in the RPE, both IR and IGF-1R were already downregulated after short periods (4 h) of positive lens wear. In contrast, IR and IGF-1R were upregulated in the choroid and fibrous sclera during treatment with negative, but not positive, lenses.

Conclusions: Differences observed in the IR transcript length in different tissues suggest possibly different functions. The differential regulation of IR and IGF-1R in the RPE, choroid, and fibrous sclera is consistent with their involvement in a signaling cascade for emmetropization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus