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Characterization of intraocular pressure responses of the Tibetan monkey (Macaca thibetana).

Liu G, Zeng T, Yu W, Yan N, Wang H, Cai SP, Pang IH, Liu X - Mol. Vis. (2011)

Bottom Line: Three hours after topical ocular administration, travoprost reduced IOP by 5.2±0.6 mmHg (n=6, p<0.001), and timolol reduced IOP by 2.8±0.7 mmHg (p<0.05).The circadian IOP fluctuation in conscious Tibetan monkeys and their responses to travoprost, timolol, and other experimental conditions are similar to other primates.These monkeys appear to be a suitable model for glaucoma research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ophthalmic Laboratories & Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To characterize the effects of circadian rhythm, feeding time, age, general anesthesia, and ocular hypotensive compounds on intraocular pressure (IOP) of the Tibetan monkey (Macaca thibetana).

Methods: Tibetan monkeys were trained for IOP measurement with the TonoVet® rebound tonometer without sedation or anesthesia. Their circadian IOP fluctuation was monitored every 3 h. Effects of changing the feeding time, general anesthesia, age (2-3 year-old versus 8-15 year-old animals), and various pharmacological agents, such as travoprost, timolol, naphazoline and spiradoline, on IOP were also evaluated.

Results: After behavioral training, conscious Tibetan monkeys were receptive to IOP measurement. The lowest and highest IOP values in a circadian cycle were recorded at 3:00 AM (19.8±0.4 mmHg, mean±SEM, n=12) and noon (29.3±0.9 mmHg), respectively. Changing the feeding time from 11:30 AM to 12:30 PM lowered the noon IOP to 25.1±1.2 mmHg. General anesthesia lowered IOP in these monkeys, while IOP of young and mature animals were similar. Three hours after topical ocular administration, travoprost reduced IOP by 5.2±0.6 mmHg (n=6, p<0.001), and timolol reduced IOP by 2.8±0.7 mmHg (p<0.05). Naphazoline and spiradoline lowered IOP by 4.8 mmHg and 2.5 mmHg (both p<0.001), respectively, 2 h after drug administration.

Conclusions: The circadian IOP fluctuation in conscious Tibetan monkeys and their responses to travoprost, timolol, and other experimental conditions are similar to other primates. These monkeys appear to be a suitable model for glaucoma research.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Measurement of IOP by the TonoVet® rebound tonometer in conscious Tibetan monkey. A trained monkey was gently held in an assistant's arms, allowing IOP measurement with the rebound tonometer.
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f1: Measurement of IOP by the TonoVet® rebound tonometer in conscious Tibetan monkey. A trained monkey was gently held in an assistant's arms, allowing IOP measurement with the rebound tonometer.

Mentions: For this study, only the young (2–3 years old) monkeys were trained for conscious IOP measurement. The mature (8–15 years old) animals were not trained and used only for the anesthesia effect study. Behavioral training was conducted based on the principle of award-conditioned behavior. Newborn monkeys were raised in the laboratory, with daily close and friendly interactions with caretakers and trainers. Training for IOP measurement started at the age of two. Two trainers participated in the training, one holding the monkey gently in his arms, and the other one using the tonometer to measure IOP. The animal was gently restrained but not stressed (Figure 1). If the monkey cooperated, a peanut was given as a reward, which was one of the monkey’s favorite foods but not provided in its daily food ration. After a five- to six-month daily training period, all monkeys showed good tolerance to the tonometer and appeared calm and comfortable during IOP measurement. Consistent and reproducible IOP values were easily obtained from these animals.


Characterization of intraocular pressure responses of the Tibetan monkey (Macaca thibetana).

Liu G, Zeng T, Yu W, Yan N, Wang H, Cai SP, Pang IH, Liu X - Mol. Vis. (2011)

Measurement of IOP by the TonoVet® rebound tonometer in conscious Tibetan monkey. A trained monkey was gently held in an assistant's arms, allowing IOP measurement with the rebound tonometer.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108893&req=5

f1: Measurement of IOP by the TonoVet® rebound tonometer in conscious Tibetan monkey. A trained monkey was gently held in an assistant's arms, allowing IOP measurement with the rebound tonometer.
Mentions: For this study, only the young (2–3 years old) monkeys were trained for conscious IOP measurement. The mature (8–15 years old) animals were not trained and used only for the anesthesia effect study. Behavioral training was conducted based on the principle of award-conditioned behavior. Newborn monkeys were raised in the laboratory, with daily close and friendly interactions with caretakers and trainers. Training for IOP measurement started at the age of two. Two trainers participated in the training, one holding the monkey gently in his arms, and the other one using the tonometer to measure IOP. The animal was gently restrained but not stressed (Figure 1). If the monkey cooperated, a peanut was given as a reward, which was one of the monkey’s favorite foods but not provided in its daily food ration. After a five- to six-month daily training period, all monkeys showed good tolerance to the tonometer and appeared calm and comfortable during IOP measurement. Consistent and reproducible IOP values were easily obtained from these animals.

Bottom Line: Three hours after topical ocular administration, travoprost reduced IOP by 5.2±0.6 mmHg (n=6, p<0.001), and timolol reduced IOP by 2.8±0.7 mmHg (p<0.05).The circadian IOP fluctuation in conscious Tibetan monkeys and their responses to travoprost, timolol, and other experimental conditions are similar to other primates.These monkeys appear to be a suitable model for glaucoma research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ophthalmic Laboratories & Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To characterize the effects of circadian rhythm, feeding time, age, general anesthesia, and ocular hypotensive compounds on intraocular pressure (IOP) of the Tibetan monkey (Macaca thibetana).

Methods: Tibetan monkeys were trained for IOP measurement with the TonoVet® rebound tonometer without sedation or anesthesia. Their circadian IOP fluctuation was monitored every 3 h. Effects of changing the feeding time, general anesthesia, age (2-3 year-old versus 8-15 year-old animals), and various pharmacological agents, such as travoprost, timolol, naphazoline and spiradoline, on IOP were also evaluated.

Results: After behavioral training, conscious Tibetan monkeys were receptive to IOP measurement. The lowest and highest IOP values in a circadian cycle were recorded at 3:00 AM (19.8±0.4 mmHg, mean±SEM, n=12) and noon (29.3±0.9 mmHg), respectively. Changing the feeding time from 11:30 AM to 12:30 PM lowered the noon IOP to 25.1±1.2 mmHg. General anesthesia lowered IOP in these monkeys, while IOP of young and mature animals were similar. Three hours after topical ocular administration, travoprost reduced IOP by 5.2±0.6 mmHg (n=6, p<0.001), and timolol reduced IOP by 2.8±0.7 mmHg (p<0.05). Naphazoline and spiradoline lowered IOP by 4.8 mmHg and 2.5 mmHg (both p<0.001), respectively, 2 h after drug administration.

Conclusions: The circadian IOP fluctuation in conscious Tibetan monkeys and their responses to travoprost, timolol, and other experimental conditions are similar to other primates. These monkeys appear to be a suitable model for glaucoma research.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus