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Long space missions, gene therapy, and the vital role of magnesium: a three-pronged plan for the next 50 years.

Rowe WJ - Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis (2010)

Bottom Line: Since pharmaceuticals cannot be used in space until liver and kidney dysfunctions are corrected, and with invariable malabsorption, it appears there is no alternative other than to use subcutaneous magnesium (Mg) replacements in the presence of deficiencies and use of gene therapy.Research would be conducted both on Earth and in microgravity, with the development of subcutaneous pharmaceuticals and Mg, and a space walk-reliable subcutaneous silicon device, given that no replenishable subcutaneous device is presently available.A three-pronged approach provides a plan for the next 50 years: A. complete correction of a Mg deficit; B. partial replacement with plasma volume substitutes, and C. multiple gene factor strategy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical University of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA. rowerun@aol.com

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proposed mechanisms for space flight-related vascular complications requiring magnesium repacement and possible correction of at least four gene deficiencies.Abbreviations: ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; EPO, erythropoietin; NO, nitric oxide; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
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f1-ijnrd-3-123: Proposed mechanisms for space flight-related vascular complications requiring magnesium repacement and possible correction of at least four gene deficiencies.Abbreviations: ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; EPO, erythropoietin; NO, nitric oxide; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.

Mentions: Mg deficiency during a space flight plays an important role in renal disease. An experimental Mg deficiency has been shown to cause hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, resulting in aldosterone secretion, which in turn increases Mg loss and creates vicious cycles. These vicious cycles can develop from Mg ion deficits, with resultant catecholamine elevations and an increased angiotensin effect. The latter can contribute to an upregulated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with hypertension (see Figure 1). However, if renal insufficiency occurs, Mg replacement will have to be closely monitored.1 Focusing on correction of peripheral vascular complications during space flight, for example, in the presence of a 40% reduction of calf blood flow in microgravity and doubling of calf vascular resistance,1 the results with intramuscular gene transfer of VEGF have been encouraging, with an increase in collateral vessels around the injection sites during a nine-month follow-up study.14,15


Long space missions, gene therapy, and the vital role of magnesium: a three-pronged plan for the next 50 years.

Rowe WJ - Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis (2010)

Proposed mechanisms for space flight-related vascular complications requiring magnesium repacement and possible correction of at least four gene deficiencies.Abbreviations: ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; EPO, erythropoietin; NO, nitric oxide; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108772&req=5

f1-ijnrd-3-123: Proposed mechanisms for space flight-related vascular complications requiring magnesium repacement and possible correction of at least four gene deficiencies.Abbreviations: ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; EPO, erythropoietin; NO, nitric oxide; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
Mentions: Mg deficiency during a space flight plays an important role in renal disease. An experimental Mg deficiency has been shown to cause hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, resulting in aldosterone secretion, which in turn increases Mg loss and creates vicious cycles. These vicious cycles can develop from Mg ion deficits, with resultant catecholamine elevations and an increased angiotensin effect. The latter can contribute to an upregulated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with hypertension (see Figure 1). However, if renal insufficiency occurs, Mg replacement will have to be closely monitored.1 Focusing on correction of peripheral vascular complications during space flight, for example, in the presence of a 40% reduction of calf blood flow in microgravity and doubling of calf vascular resistance,1 the results with intramuscular gene transfer of VEGF have been encouraging, with an increase in collateral vessels around the injection sites during a nine-month follow-up study.14,15

Bottom Line: Since pharmaceuticals cannot be used in space until liver and kidney dysfunctions are corrected, and with invariable malabsorption, it appears there is no alternative other than to use subcutaneous magnesium (Mg) replacements in the presence of deficiencies and use of gene therapy.Research would be conducted both on Earth and in microgravity, with the development of subcutaneous pharmaceuticals and Mg, and a space walk-reliable subcutaneous silicon device, given that no replenishable subcutaneous device is presently available.A three-pronged approach provides a plan for the next 50 years: A. complete correction of a Mg deficit; B. partial replacement with plasma volume substitutes, and C. multiple gene factor strategy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical University of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA. rowerun@aol.com

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus