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Event-related brain potential investigation of preparation for speech production in late bilinguals.

Wu YJ, Thierry G - Front Psychol (2011)

Bottom Line: Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English.This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese.These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, Bangor University Bangor, UK.

ABSTRACT
It has been debated how bilinguals select the intended language and prevent interference from the unintended language when speaking. Here, we studied the nature of the mental representations accessed by late fluent bilinguals during a rhyming judgment task relying on covert speech production. We recorded event-related brain potentials in Chinese-English bilinguals and monolingual speakers of English while they indicated whether the names of pictures presented on a screen rhymed.  Whether bilingual participants focussed on rhyming selectively in English or Chinese, we found a significant priming effect of language-specific sound repetition. Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English. This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese. These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Behavioral results of all groups in the rhyming judgment tasks. Reaction times (bars; left axis) and error rates (bullets; right axis) for the native English speakers and the Chinese–English bilingual speakers (A) in the English rhyming judgment task is presented on the left of the vertical line. Results of the Chinese–English bilingual speakers in the Chinese rhyming judgment task are presented to the right of the vertical line (B). Conditions in which the picture pairs had names rhyming in English, rhyming in Chinese, were semantically related, or unrelated are labeled E, C, S, and U, respectively. The stars indicate significant differences (P  <  0.05). Error bars depict SEM in all cases.
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Figure 2: Behavioral results of all groups in the rhyming judgment tasks. Reaction times (bars; left axis) and error rates (bullets; right axis) for the native English speakers and the Chinese–English bilingual speakers (A) in the English rhyming judgment task is presented on the left of the vertical line. Results of the Chinese–English bilingual speakers in the Chinese rhyming judgment task are presented to the right of the vertical line (B). Conditions in which the picture pairs had names rhyming in English, rhyming in Chinese, were semantically related, or unrelated are labeled E, C, S, and U, respectively. The stars indicate significant differences (P  <  0.05). Error bars depict SEM in all cases.

Mentions: In experiment 1, when native English speakers performed the rhyming task in English, repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of condition on reaction times (F3,42 =  2.91, P  < 0.05). Post hoc analysis (LSD) showed that this difference was driven by faster reaction times for target pictures names that rhymed with prime pictures names in English as compared to all other conditions (Figure 2, all Ps  < 0.05). We also found that more errors were made for the English rhyming condition (F3,42  =  8.61, P  <  0.001) than for the other conditions (all Ps  <  0.001). In particular, no effect of rhyming in Chinese names was found on either reaction times or error rates in native English control participants (all Ps  >  0.1). In the Chinese–English bilinguals, rhyming in English reduced reaction times (F3,42  =  3.08, P  <  0.001) and increased error rates (F3,42  =  4.7, P  <  0.001) as compared to semantically related and unrelated picture pairs, but no significant reaction time difference was found between pairs of picture names that rhymed in English and those that rhymed in Chinese (P  >  0.1). However, picture names rhyming in Chinese (i.e., in the unintended language) also increased error rates as compared to semantically related and unrelated picture pairs (P  <  0.05).


Event-related brain potential investigation of preparation for speech production in late bilinguals.

Wu YJ, Thierry G - Front Psychol (2011)

Behavioral results of all groups in the rhyming judgment tasks. Reaction times (bars; left axis) and error rates (bullets; right axis) for the native English speakers and the Chinese–English bilingual speakers (A) in the English rhyming judgment task is presented on the left of the vertical line. Results of the Chinese–English bilingual speakers in the Chinese rhyming judgment task are presented to the right of the vertical line (B). Conditions in which the picture pairs had names rhyming in English, rhyming in Chinese, were semantically related, or unrelated are labeled E, C, S, and U, respectively. The stars indicate significant differences (P  <  0.05). Error bars depict SEM in all cases.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108551&req=5

Figure 2: Behavioral results of all groups in the rhyming judgment tasks. Reaction times (bars; left axis) and error rates (bullets; right axis) for the native English speakers and the Chinese–English bilingual speakers (A) in the English rhyming judgment task is presented on the left of the vertical line. Results of the Chinese–English bilingual speakers in the Chinese rhyming judgment task are presented to the right of the vertical line (B). Conditions in which the picture pairs had names rhyming in English, rhyming in Chinese, were semantically related, or unrelated are labeled E, C, S, and U, respectively. The stars indicate significant differences (P  <  0.05). Error bars depict SEM in all cases.
Mentions: In experiment 1, when native English speakers performed the rhyming task in English, repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of condition on reaction times (F3,42 =  2.91, P  < 0.05). Post hoc analysis (LSD) showed that this difference was driven by faster reaction times for target pictures names that rhymed with prime pictures names in English as compared to all other conditions (Figure 2, all Ps  < 0.05). We also found that more errors were made for the English rhyming condition (F3,42  =  8.61, P  <  0.001) than for the other conditions (all Ps  <  0.001). In particular, no effect of rhyming in Chinese names was found on either reaction times or error rates in native English control participants (all Ps  >  0.1). In the Chinese–English bilinguals, rhyming in English reduced reaction times (F3,42  =  3.08, P  <  0.001) and increased error rates (F3,42  =  4.7, P  <  0.001) as compared to semantically related and unrelated picture pairs, but no significant reaction time difference was found between pairs of picture names that rhymed in English and those that rhymed in Chinese (P  >  0.1). However, picture names rhyming in Chinese (i.e., in the unintended language) also increased error rates as compared to semantically related and unrelated picture pairs (P  <  0.05).

Bottom Line: Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English.This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese.These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, Bangor University Bangor, UK.

ABSTRACT
It has been debated how bilinguals select the intended language and prevent interference from the unintended language when speaking. Here, we studied the nature of the mental representations accessed by late fluent bilinguals during a rhyming judgment task relying on covert speech production. We recorded event-related brain potentials in Chinese-English bilinguals and monolingual speakers of English while they indicated whether the names of pictures presented on a screen rhymed.  Whether bilingual participants focussed on rhyming selectively in English or Chinese, we found a significant priming effect of language-specific sound repetition. Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English. This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese. These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus