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Event-related brain potential investigation of preparation for speech production in late bilinguals.

Wu YJ, Thierry G - Front Psychol (2011)

Bottom Line: Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English.This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese.These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, Bangor University Bangor, UK.

ABSTRACT
It has been debated how bilinguals select the intended language and prevent interference from the unintended language when speaking. Here, we studied the nature of the mental representations accessed by late fluent bilinguals during a rhyming judgment task relying on covert speech production. We recorded event-related brain potentials in Chinese-English bilinguals and monolingual speakers of English while they indicated whether the names of pictures presented on a screen rhymed.  Whether bilingual participants focussed on rhyming selectively in English or Chinese, we found a significant priming effect of language-specific sound repetition. Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English. This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese. These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of stimuli used in the rhyming judgment tasks. Each cell contains one example of a picture pair used in the English and Chinese tasks, its English names, its simplified Chinese translations, and the corresponding Chinese Pin Yin (alphabetic transposition of the phonological form). As compared to English, Chinese characters that rhyme seldom bear overlaps in written forms (i.e., orthography). To prevent the potential confounding effects of orthographic variability on picture naming (Weekes et al., 2005; Bi et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009), we used Chinese words that shared a character repetition in both phonology and orthography, forming a “rhyming” condition that is comparable to the English control condition. Color pictures of objects from real life situation were used to minimize naming difficulty, since black–white line drawings can sometimes be more difficult to name. The current experiment did not include a “familiarization” procedure in which participants were trained with the desired names of stimuli in advance. Although, as is common practice in picture naming studies, such practice helps reduce error rates, ERPs are particularly sensitive to storage in episodic memory. Also, such a procedure tends to prime a specific lexical candidate for each picture and, therefore, may artificially bias language production.
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Figure 1: Examples of stimuli used in the rhyming judgment tasks. Each cell contains one example of a picture pair used in the English and Chinese tasks, its English names, its simplified Chinese translations, and the corresponding Chinese Pin Yin (alphabetic transposition of the phonological form). As compared to English, Chinese characters that rhyme seldom bear overlaps in written forms (i.e., orthography). To prevent the potential confounding effects of orthographic variability on picture naming (Weekes et al., 2005; Bi et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009), we used Chinese words that shared a character repetition in both phonology and orthography, forming a “rhyming” condition that is comparable to the English control condition. Color pictures of objects from real life situation were used to minimize naming difficulty, since black–white line drawings can sometimes be more difficult to name. The current experiment did not include a “familiarization” procedure in which participants were trained with the desired names of stimuli in advance. Although, as is common practice in picture naming studies, such practice helps reduce error rates, ERPs are particularly sensitive to storage in episodic memory. Also, such a procedure tends to prime a specific lexical candidate for each picture and, therefore, may artificially bias language production.

Mentions: To characterize the nature of the representations from the two languages accessed during speech production in bilingual individuals, the present study manipulated phonological priming in the first and second languages independently. In experiment 1, Chinese–English proficient bilinguals were engaged in a rhyming judgment task in which they had to decide whether the English name of the target picture rhymed with that of a picture prime. Pairs of pictures from four conditions were presented randomly: semantically related, semantically unrelated but rhyming in English, and semantically unrelated but rhyming in Chinese, and semantically unrelated but rhyming in neither English or Chinese (Figure 1). We avoided artificial effects by facial movements on ERPs during overt speech, and also enabled measurement of activity in a late time window (i.e., 600  ms+) by engaging participant in a task only requiring button presses. However, this relied on the assumption that rhyming judgment required phonological access to the name of the picture.


Event-related brain potential investigation of preparation for speech production in late bilinguals.

Wu YJ, Thierry G - Front Psychol (2011)

Examples of stimuli used in the rhyming judgment tasks. Each cell contains one example of a picture pair used in the English and Chinese tasks, its English names, its simplified Chinese translations, and the corresponding Chinese Pin Yin (alphabetic transposition of the phonological form). As compared to English, Chinese characters that rhyme seldom bear overlaps in written forms (i.e., orthography). To prevent the potential confounding effects of orthographic variability on picture naming (Weekes et al., 2005; Bi et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009), we used Chinese words that shared a character repetition in both phonology and orthography, forming a “rhyming” condition that is comparable to the English control condition. Color pictures of objects from real life situation were used to minimize naming difficulty, since black–white line drawings can sometimes be more difficult to name. The current experiment did not include a “familiarization” procedure in which participants were trained with the desired names of stimuli in advance. Although, as is common practice in picture naming studies, such practice helps reduce error rates, ERPs are particularly sensitive to storage in episodic memory. Also, such a procedure tends to prime a specific lexical candidate for each picture and, therefore, may artificially bias language production.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108551&req=5

Figure 1: Examples of stimuli used in the rhyming judgment tasks. Each cell contains one example of a picture pair used in the English and Chinese tasks, its English names, its simplified Chinese translations, and the corresponding Chinese Pin Yin (alphabetic transposition of the phonological form). As compared to English, Chinese characters that rhyme seldom bear overlaps in written forms (i.e., orthography). To prevent the potential confounding effects of orthographic variability on picture naming (Weekes et al., 2005; Bi et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009), we used Chinese words that shared a character repetition in both phonology and orthography, forming a “rhyming” condition that is comparable to the English control condition. Color pictures of objects from real life situation were used to minimize naming difficulty, since black–white line drawings can sometimes be more difficult to name. The current experiment did not include a “familiarization” procedure in which participants were trained with the desired names of stimuli in advance. Although, as is common practice in picture naming studies, such practice helps reduce error rates, ERPs are particularly sensitive to storage in episodic memory. Also, such a procedure tends to prime a specific lexical candidate for each picture and, therefore, may artificially bias language production.
Mentions: To characterize the nature of the representations from the two languages accessed during speech production in bilingual individuals, the present study manipulated phonological priming in the first and second languages independently. In experiment 1, Chinese–English proficient bilinguals were engaged in a rhyming judgment task in which they had to decide whether the English name of the target picture rhymed with that of a picture prime. Pairs of pictures from four conditions were presented randomly: semantically related, semantically unrelated but rhyming in English, and semantically unrelated but rhyming in Chinese, and semantically unrelated but rhyming in neither English or Chinese (Figure 1). We avoided artificial effects by facial movements on ERPs during overt speech, and also enabled measurement of activity in a late time window (i.e., 600  ms+) by engaging participant in a task only requiring button presses. However, this relied on the assumption that rhyming judgment required phonological access to the name of the picture.

Bottom Line: Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English.This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese.These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, Bangor University Bangor, UK.

ABSTRACT
It has been debated how bilinguals select the intended language and prevent interference from the unintended language when speaking. Here, we studied the nature of the mental representations accessed by late fluent bilinguals during a rhyming judgment task relying on covert speech production. We recorded event-related brain potentials in Chinese-English bilinguals and monolingual speakers of English while they indicated whether the names of pictures presented on a screen rhymed.  Whether bilingual participants focussed on rhyming selectively in English or Chinese, we found a significant priming effect of language-specific sound repetition. Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English. This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ∼200  ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgments in Chinese. These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus