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Comparison of standard and nonstandard helmets and variants influencing the choice of helmets: A preliminary report of cross-sectional prospective analysis of 100 cases.

Amirjamshidi A, Ardalan A, Nainei KH, Sadeghi S, Pahlevani M, Zarei MR - Surg Neurol Int (2011)

Bottom Line: The literature does not offer the rate of protection provided by different types of helmets used, especially as it applies to developing countries.The other variables did not reach a significant value affecting the use of either standard or nonstandard helmets in prevention of craniofacial damages.However, it can lead the way for further analysis of larger and more comprehensive head trauma databases regarding factors contributing to the issue of head injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: The literature does not offer the rate of protection provided by different types of helmets used, especially as it applies to developing countries. We hypothesize that standard versus nonstandard types of helmets might differ in the rate of complications of head and neck trauma occurring in victims of motorcycle accidents. Here we report the rate of occurrence, the type of injuries and differences thereof in standard and nonstandard helmet bearers, and its relevance to protection from serious injury.

Methods: The data were gathered from a data set of motorcycle accident victims admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital (Teheran/Iran). A cross-sectional study was designed for a 6-month period of time, June to December 2007. Variants analyzed included: demographics, types of helmets used, level of education of the victims (as in: being trained for using helmets and status of holding a valid driving license). The latter variants were evaluated for possibly influencing the outcome of the injured motorcyclists using either kind of helmets.

Results: Among a total of 576 injured motorcyclists who had head, face, or neck injuries, 432 (75%) were using some kind of helmet. A total of 144 (25%) of the injured patients were admitted to the neurosurgical emergency service. There were 100 patients whose data sheets contained all variables which could be included in the pilot analysis of this cohort.

Discussion: All 100 subjects were male patients with the age range of 32 ± 11 years. Twenty-five percent were using standard helmets at the time of accident, 43% had no cranio-facio-cervical injury except very mild skin abrasions, and 23% had facial injury, including skin lacerations needing sutures, two nasal bone fractures, and no maxillofacial damage. Among the patients using standard helmets, 44% had head injuries which needed to be taken care of (mostly nonoperatively), while 61% using nonstandard helmets had head trauma (P > 0.05). The other variables did not reach a significant value affecting the use of either standard or nonstandard helmets in prevention of craniofacial damages.

Conclusion: This pilot analysis (comprising the data from 100 cases of motorcycle accidents) could not demonstrate statistically significant differences in injury patterns of different types of helmets and variants influencing their respective use. However, it can lead the way for further analysis of larger and more comprehensive head trauma databases regarding factors contributing to the issue of head injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Standard helmet. (b-d) Nonstandard helmets
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Figure 1: (a) Standard helmet. (b-d) Nonstandard helmets

Mentions: Motorcycle is a convenient transportation vehicle especially in developing countries and popular for several reasons, i.e. being cheaper to acquire, of low running expenses (considering fuel consumption) and moving more rapidly in the local traffic jam. Due to a lack of protection provided by a passenger enclosure (such as the driver compartment in cars), accidents frequently result in death or disability leaving a heavy burden upon the national health organizations. It is quite evident for every citizen in larger or smaller villages of Iran that motorcyclists are the least protected and most danger producing vehicle drivers on the roads. It has been established that wearing helmet can effectively protect and reduce the rate and severity of head injury.[1346–81012131518–20] It is suggested by some authors that helmets with full coverage [Figure 1a] were found to be safer than half-shell helmets.[4] An extensive search in the literature via Pubmed, Embase, and other available search machines, using different key words (i.e., cranio-cervico-facial trauma, head trauma, helmet, and motorcycle accident) showed scarce evidence regarding the efficacy of various kinds of helmets used by different populations with varying socioeconomic situations.[591617] With this study, we do not intend to prove the protective effect of helmets in motorcycle accidents per se, but hypothesize that standard versus nonstandard types of helmets might differ in the rate of head and neck trauma in victims of motorcycle accidents. We therefore intended to compare the protective efficacy of different kinds of helmets available in the Iranian market. Beyond this, we were interested in investigating selected variants possibly influencing the use of such helmets and its relevance to such motorcycle accidents.


Comparison of standard and nonstandard helmets and variants influencing the choice of helmets: A preliminary report of cross-sectional prospective analysis of 100 cases.

Amirjamshidi A, Ardalan A, Nainei KH, Sadeghi S, Pahlevani M, Zarei MR - Surg Neurol Int (2011)

(a) Standard helmet. (b-d) Nonstandard helmets
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108430&req=5

Figure 1: (a) Standard helmet. (b-d) Nonstandard helmets
Mentions: Motorcycle is a convenient transportation vehicle especially in developing countries and popular for several reasons, i.e. being cheaper to acquire, of low running expenses (considering fuel consumption) and moving more rapidly in the local traffic jam. Due to a lack of protection provided by a passenger enclosure (such as the driver compartment in cars), accidents frequently result in death or disability leaving a heavy burden upon the national health organizations. It is quite evident for every citizen in larger or smaller villages of Iran that motorcyclists are the least protected and most danger producing vehicle drivers on the roads. It has been established that wearing helmet can effectively protect and reduce the rate and severity of head injury.[1346–81012131518–20] It is suggested by some authors that helmets with full coverage [Figure 1a] were found to be safer than half-shell helmets.[4] An extensive search in the literature via Pubmed, Embase, and other available search machines, using different key words (i.e., cranio-cervico-facial trauma, head trauma, helmet, and motorcycle accident) showed scarce evidence regarding the efficacy of various kinds of helmets used by different populations with varying socioeconomic situations.[591617] With this study, we do not intend to prove the protective effect of helmets in motorcycle accidents per se, but hypothesize that standard versus nonstandard types of helmets might differ in the rate of head and neck trauma in victims of motorcycle accidents. We therefore intended to compare the protective efficacy of different kinds of helmets available in the Iranian market. Beyond this, we were interested in investigating selected variants possibly influencing the use of such helmets and its relevance to such motorcycle accidents.

Bottom Line: The literature does not offer the rate of protection provided by different types of helmets used, especially as it applies to developing countries.The other variables did not reach a significant value affecting the use of either standard or nonstandard helmets in prevention of craniofacial damages.However, it can lead the way for further analysis of larger and more comprehensive head trauma databases regarding factors contributing to the issue of head injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: The literature does not offer the rate of protection provided by different types of helmets used, especially as it applies to developing countries. We hypothesize that standard versus nonstandard types of helmets might differ in the rate of complications of head and neck trauma occurring in victims of motorcycle accidents. Here we report the rate of occurrence, the type of injuries and differences thereof in standard and nonstandard helmet bearers, and its relevance to protection from serious injury.

Methods: The data were gathered from a data set of motorcycle accident victims admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital (Teheran/Iran). A cross-sectional study was designed for a 6-month period of time, June to December 2007. Variants analyzed included: demographics, types of helmets used, level of education of the victims (as in: being trained for using helmets and status of holding a valid driving license). The latter variants were evaluated for possibly influencing the outcome of the injured motorcyclists using either kind of helmets.

Results: Among a total of 576 injured motorcyclists who had head, face, or neck injuries, 432 (75%) were using some kind of helmet. A total of 144 (25%) of the injured patients were admitted to the neurosurgical emergency service. There were 100 patients whose data sheets contained all variables which could be included in the pilot analysis of this cohort.

Discussion: All 100 subjects were male patients with the age range of 32 ± 11 years. Twenty-five percent were using standard helmets at the time of accident, 43% had no cranio-facio-cervical injury except very mild skin abrasions, and 23% had facial injury, including skin lacerations needing sutures, two nasal bone fractures, and no maxillofacial damage. Among the patients using standard helmets, 44% had head injuries which needed to be taken care of (mostly nonoperatively), while 61% using nonstandard helmets had head trauma (P > 0.05). The other variables did not reach a significant value affecting the use of either standard or nonstandard helmets in prevention of craniofacial damages.

Conclusion: This pilot analysis (comprising the data from 100 cases of motorcycle accidents) could not demonstrate statistically significant differences in injury patterns of different types of helmets and variants influencing their respective use. However, it can lead the way for further analysis of larger and more comprehensive head trauma databases regarding factors contributing to the issue of head injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus