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Loss of specificity in Basal Ganglia related movement disorders.

Bronfeld M, Bar-Gad I - Front Syst Neurosci (2011)

Bottom Line: Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events.We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG.Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Leslie and Susan Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University Ramat-Gan, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of interconnected nuclei which play a pivotal part in limbic, associative, and motor functions. This role is mirrored by the wide range of motor and behavioral abnormalities directly resulting from dysfunction of the BG. Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events. In the normal BG, this modulation is highly specific, with each neuron related only to a small subset of behavioral events depending on specific combinations of movement parameters and context. In many pathological conditions involving BG dysfunction and motor abnormalities, this neuronal specificity is lost. Loss of specificity (LOS) manifests in neuronal activity related to a larger spectrum of events and consequently a large overlap of movement-related activation patterns between different neurons. We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG. The prevalence of LOS in a many BG-related disorders suggests that neuronal specificity may represent a key feature of normal information processing in the BG system. Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neuronal specificity. Peri-event time histograms and raster plots of the activity of a single neuron around the onset-time of different movements (simulated data), illustrating the concept of neuronal specificity. (A) Specific encoding, the neuron displays rate changes only in relation to movements of a single joint. (B) Non-specific encoding, the neuron displays similar rate modulations related to movements of multiple joints.
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Figure 1: Neuronal specificity. Peri-event time histograms and raster plots of the activity of a single neuron around the onset-time of different movements (simulated data), illustrating the concept of neuronal specificity. (A) Specific encoding, the neuron displays rate changes only in relation to movements of a single joint. (B) Non-specific encoding, the neuron displays similar rate modulations related to movements of multiple joints.

Mentions: Different BG-related disorders are associated with a wide variety of clinical manifestations and physiological abnormalities. Despite these differences, one physiological phenomenon is common to many BG-related disorders: neuronal loss of specificity (LOS). In many of these pathological conditions, individual BG neurons lose their characteristic selective movement-related activity profiles and instead display similar activity modulations related to a broader range of behavioral events (Figure 1). In this section we review evidence for BG LOS in human patients and in animal models of the major BG-related diseases.


Loss of specificity in Basal Ganglia related movement disorders.

Bronfeld M, Bar-Gad I - Front Syst Neurosci (2011)

Neuronal specificity. Peri-event time histograms and raster plots of the activity of a single neuron around the onset-time of different movements (simulated data), illustrating the concept of neuronal specificity. (A) Specific encoding, the neuron displays rate changes only in relation to movements of a single joint. (B) Non-specific encoding, the neuron displays similar rate modulations related to movements of multiple joints.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108383&req=5

Figure 1: Neuronal specificity. Peri-event time histograms and raster plots of the activity of a single neuron around the onset-time of different movements (simulated data), illustrating the concept of neuronal specificity. (A) Specific encoding, the neuron displays rate changes only in relation to movements of a single joint. (B) Non-specific encoding, the neuron displays similar rate modulations related to movements of multiple joints.
Mentions: Different BG-related disorders are associated with a wide variety of clinical manifestations and physiological abnormalities. Despite these differences, one physiological phenomenon is common to many BG-related disorders: neuronal loss of specificity (LOS). In many of these pathological conditions, individual BG neurons lose their characteristic selective movement-related activity profiles and instead display similar activity modulations related to a broader range of behavioral events (Figure 1). In this section we review evidence for BG LOS in human patients and in animal models of the major BG-related diseases.

Bottom Line: Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events.We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG.Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Leslie and Susan Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University Ramat-Gan, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of interconnected nuclei which play a pivotal part in limbic, associative, and motor functions. This role is mirrored by the wide range of motor and behavioral abnormalities directly resulting from dysfunction of the BG. Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events. In the normal BG, this modulation is highly specific, with each neuron related only to a small subset of behavioral events depending on specific combinations of movement parameters and context. In many pathological conditions involving BG dysfunction and motor abnormalities, this neuronal specificity is lost. Loss of specificity (LOS) manifests in neuronal activity related to a larger spectrum of events and consequently a large overlap of movement-related activation patterns between different neurons. We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG. The prevalence of LOS in a many BG-related disorders suggests that neuronal specificity may represent a key feature of normal information processing in the BG system. Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus