Limits...
Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef.

Coleman CM, Spearman P, Wu L - Retrovirology (2011)

Bottom Line: High levels of tetherin were transiently expressed in LPS- and IFNα-induced mature DCs, while HIV-1 localized into distinct patches in these DCs.Intriguingly, we found that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs induced significant tetherin expression in a Nef-dependent manner.Nef-dependent tetherin induction in HIV-1-infected immature DCs suggests an innate immune response of DCs to HIV-1 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells to encounter HIV-1 and play important roles in viral transmission and pathogenesis. Immature DCs allow productive HIV-1 replication and long-term viral dissemination. The pro-inflammatory factor lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces DC maturation and enhances the efficiency of DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Type I interferon (IFN) partially inhibits HIV-1 replication and cell-cell transmission in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Tetherin is a type I IFN-inducible restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 release and modulates CD4+ T cell-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. However, the role of type I IFN and tetherin in HIV-1 infection of DCs and DC-mediated viral transmission remains unknown.

Results: We demonstrated that IFN-alpha (IFNα)-induced mature DCs restricted HIV-1 replication and trans-infection of CD4+ T cells. Tetherin expression in monocyte-derived immature DCs was undetectable or very low. High levels of tetherin were transiently expressed in LPS- and IFNα-induced mature DCs, while HIV-1 localized into distinct patches in these DCs. Knockdown of induced tetherin in LPS- or IFNα-matured DCs modestly enhanced HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells, but had no significant effect on wild-type HIV-1 replication in mature DCs. Intriguingly, we found that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs induced significant tetherin expression in a Nef-dependent manner.

Conclusions: The restriction of HIV-1 replication and transmission in IFNα-induced mature DCs indicates a potent anti-HIV-1 response; however, high levels of tetherin induced in mature DCs cannot significantly restrict wild-type HIV-1 release and DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Nef-dependent tetherin induction in HIV-1-infected immature DCs suggests an innate immune response of DCs to HIV-1 infection.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Transmission and replication of HIV-1 is restricted in mDC-IFNα. Transmission of HIV-1 by DCs was assessed by incubating DCs with either the single-cycle luciferase reporter HIV-1 or replication-competent HIV-1 NL(AD8) for 2 h, then co-cultured with Hut/CCR5 target cells for 3 or 2 days, respectively; transmission was assessed by whole-cell luciferase assay or release of p24 in supernatants. (A) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of the single-cycle luciferase reporter virus to CD4+ T cells over iDC transmission levels. cps, counts per second. Mock, mock infected iDCs. Data represent mean ± SEM of three independent experiments performed on DCs from three different donors. U.D., undetectable (lower than detection limit). (B) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of HIV-1 NL(AD8) to CD4+ T cells at 2 dpi (days post-infection) relative to iDC transmission levels. Graph represents mean data ± SEM from three independent experiments performed with DCs from three different donors. DCs were infected with WT NL(AD8) and p24 production in the cell lysates (C) or supernatants (D) was monitored after 2 h or 3-7 dpi using a p24 ELISA. AZT was used to assess productive HIV-1 infection. Data are from one experiment and representative of at least two independent experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108291&req=5

Figure 2: Transmission and replication of HIV-1 is restricted in mDC-IFNα. Transmission of HIV-1 by DCs was assessed by incubating DCs with either the single-cycle luciferase reporter HIV-1 or replication-competent HIV-1 NL(AD8) for 2 h, then co-cultured with Hut/CCR5 target cells for 3 or 2 days, respectively; transmission was assessed by whole-cell luciferase assay or release of p24 in supernatants. (A) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of the single-cycle luciferase reporter virus to CD4+ T cells over iDC transmission levels. cps, counts per second. Mock, mock infected iDCs. Data represent mean ± SEM of three independent experiments performed on DCs from three different donors. U.D., undetectable (lower than detection limit). (B) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of HIV-1 NL(AD8) to CD4+ T cells at 2 dpi (days post-infection) relative to iDC transmission levels. Graph represents mean data ± SEM from three independent experiments performed with DCs from three different donors. DCs were infected with WT NL(AD8) and p24 production in the cell lysates (C) or supernatants (D) was monitored after 2 h or 3-7 dpi using a p24 ELISA. AZT was used to assess productive HIV-1 infection. Data are from one experiment and representative of at least two independent experiments.

Mentions: To assess the effect of IFNα on DC-mediated transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells, HIV-1-pulsed mDC-IFNα were co-cultured with Hut/CCR5 cells in viral transmission assays. Single-cycle, R5-tropic luciferase reporter HIV-1 was used and viral transmission was determined by measuring luciferase activity in cell lysates of co-cultures [52]. HIV-1-pulsed DCs alone were used as a control for background replication. mDC-LPS showed a 16-fold increase in viral transmission compared with iDC-mediated moderate transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells (Figure 2A). By contrast, mDC-IFNα failed to enhance single-cycle HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells (Figure 2A).


Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef.

Coleman CM, Spearman P, Wu L - Retrovirology (2011)

Transmission and replication of HIV-1 is restricted in mDC-IFNα. Transmission of HIV-1 by DCs was assessed by incubating DCs with either the single-cycle luciferase reporter HIV-1 or replication-competent HIV-1 NL(AD8) for 2 h, then co-cultured with Hut/CCR5 target cells for 3 or 2 days, respectively; transmission was assessed by whole-cell luciferase assay or release of p24 in supernatants. (A) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of the single-cycle luciferase reporter virus to CD4+ T cells over iDC transmission levels. cps, counts per second. Mock, mock infected iDCs. Data represent mean ± SEM of three independent experiments performed on DCs from three different donors. U.D., undetectable (lower than detection limit). (B) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of HIV-1 NL(AD8) to CD4+ T cells at 2 dpi (days post-infection) relative to iDC transmission levels. Graph represents mean data ± SEM from three independent experiments performed with DCs from three different donors. DCs were infected with WT NL(AD8) and p24 production in the cell lysates (C) or supernatants (D) was monitored after 2 h or 3-7 dpi using a p24 ELISA. AZT was used to assess productive HIV-1 infection. Data are from one experiment and representative of at least two independent experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108291&req=5

Figure 2: Transmission and replication of HIV-1 is restricted in mDC-IFNα. Transmission of HIV-1 by DCs was assessed by incubating DCs with either the single-cycle luciferase reporter HIV-1 or replication-competent HIV-1 NL(AD8) for 2 h, then co-cultured with Hut/CCR5 target cells for 3 or 2 days, respectively; transmission was assessed by whole-cell luciferase assay or release of p24 in supernatants. (A) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of the single-cycle luciferase reporter virus to CD4+ T cells over iDC transmission levels. cps, counts per second. Mock, mock infected iDCs. Data represent mean ± SEM of three independent experiments performed on DCs from three different donors. U.D., undetectable (lower than detection limit). (B) mDC-IFNα do not enhance transmission of HIV-1 NL(AD8) to CD4+ T cells at 2 dpi (days post-infection) relative to iDC transmission levels. Graph represents mean data ± SEM from three independent experiments performed with DCs from three different donors. DCs were infected with WT NL(AD8) and p24 production in the cell lysates (C) or supernatants (D) was monitored after 2 h or 3-7 dpi using a p24 ELISA. AZT was used to assess productive HIV-1 infection. Data are from one experiment and representative of at least two independent experiments.
Mentions: To assess the effect of IFNα on DC-mediated transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells, HIV-1-pulsed mDC-IFNα were co-cultured with Hut/CCR5 cells in viral transmission assays. Single-cycle, R5-tropic luciferase reporter HIV-1 was used and viral transmission was determined by measuring luciferase activity in cell lysates of co-cultures [52]. HIV-1-pulsed DCs alone were used as a control for background replication. mDC-LPS showed a 16-fold increase in viral transmission compared with iDC-mediated moderate transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells (Figure 2A). By contrast, mDC-IFNα failed to enhance single-cycle HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells (Figure 2A).

Bottom Line: High levels of tetherin were transiently expressed in LPS- and IFNα-induced mature DCs, while HIV-1 localized into distinct patches in these DCs.Intriguingly, we found that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs induced significant tetherin expression in a Nef-dependent manner.Nef-dependent tetherin induction in HIV-1-infected immature DCs suggests an innate immune response of DCs to HIV-1 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells to encounter HIV-1 and play important roles in viral transmission and pathogenesis. Immature DCs allow productive HIV-1 replication and long-term viral dissemination. The pro-inflammatory factor lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces DC maturation and enhances the efficiency of DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Type I interferon (IFN) partially inhibits HIV-1 replication and cell-cell transmission in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Tetherin is a type I IFN-inducible restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 release and modulates CD4+ T cell-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. However, the role of type I IFN and tetherin in HIV-1 infection of DCs and DC-mediated viral transmission remains unknown.

Results: We demonstrated that IFN-alpha (IFNα)-induced mature DCs restricted HIV-1 replication and trans-infection of CD4+ T cells. Tetherin expression in monocyte-derived immature DCs was undetectable or very low. High levels of tetherin were transiently expressed in LPS- and IFNα-induced mature DCs, while HIV-1 localized into distinct patches in these DCs. Knockdown of induced tetherin in LPS- or IFNα-matured DCs modestly enhanced HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells, but had no significant effect on wild-type HIV-1 replication in mature DCs. Intriguingly, we found that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs induced significant tetherin expression in a Nef-dependent manner.

Conclusions: The restriction of HIV-1 replication and transmission in IFNα-induced mature DCs indicates a potent anti-HIV-1 response; however, high levels of tetherin induced in mature DCs cannot significantly restrict wild-type HIV-1 release and DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Nef-dependent tetherin induction in HIV-1-infected immature DCs suggests an innate immune response of DCs to HIV-1 infection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus