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Genetic and Functional Diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide.

Lam JS, Taylor VL, Islam ST, Hao Y, Kocíncová D - Front Microbiol (2011)

Bottom Line: Most P. aeruginosa strains produce two distinct forms of O-Ag, one a homopolymer of D-rhamnose that is a common polysaccharide antigen (CPA, formerly termed A band), and the other a heteropolymer of three to five distinct (and often unique dideoxy) sugars in its repeat units, known as O-specific antigen (OSA, formerly termed B band).Compositional differences in the O units among the OSA from different strains form the basis of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme for classification via serotyping of different strains of P. aeruginosa.The focus of this review is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge on the genetic and resultant functional diversity of LPS produced by P. aeruginosa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph Guelph, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Lipopolysccharide (LPS) is an integral component of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell envelope, occupying the outer leaflet of the outer membrane in this Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen. It is important for bacterium-host interactions and has been shown to be a major virulence factor for this organism. Structurally, P. aeruginosa LPS is composed of three domains, namely, lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and the distal O antigen (O-Ag). Most P. aeruginosa strains produce two distinct forms of O-Ag, one a homopolymer of D-rhamnose that is a common polysaccharide antigen (CPA, formerly termed A band), and the other a heteropolymer of three to five distinct (and often unique dideoxy) sugars in its repeat units, known as O-specific antigen (OSA, formerly termed B band). Compositional differences in the O units among the OSA from different strains form the basis of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme for classification via serotyping of different strains of P. aeruginosa. The focus of this review is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge on the genetic and resultant functional diversity of LPS produced by P. aeruginosa. The underlying factors contributing to this diversity will be thoroughly discussed and presented in the context of its contributions to host-pathogen interactions and the control/prevention of infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representations of the heterogeneity/diversity of the LPS glycoforms present on the surface of a single P. aeruginosa cell. Genetic defects in members of various assembly pathway genes and their resultant changes to the variety of LPS glycoforms present have been indicated, with “✓” or “✗” representing their presence or absence, respectively. Substitutions of various lipid A and core OS sugars with phosphate groups and L-Ala have been indicated with yellow circles and red diamonds, respectively. The OSA polymer from serotype O5 has been displayed as a representative polymer.
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Figure 1: Representations of the heterogeneity/diversity of the LPS glycoforms present on the surface of a single P. aeruginosa cell. Genetic defects in members of various assembly pathway genes and their resultant changes to the variety of LPS glycoforms present have been indicated, with “✓” or “✗” representing their presence or absence, respectively. Substitutions of various lipid A and core OS sugars with phosphate groups and L-Ala have been indicated with yellow circles and red diamonds, respectively. The OSA polymer from serotype O5 has been displayed as a representative polymer.

Mentions: Most P. aeruginosa strains produce two different forms of O-Ag, one of which contains a homopolymer of D-rhamnose, arranged in α1 → 3, α1 → 2, α1 → 3 trisaccharide repeats. This homopolymeric D-rhamnan is the common polysaccharide antigen (CPA; formerly termed A band) among P. aeruginosa strains. More details of the properties of CPA will be discussed in later sections. The other form of O-Ag produced by P. aeruginosa is a heteropolymer with three to five distinct sugars in its repeat units, and is named O-specific antigen (OSA; formerly termed B band). The differences of the composition of the O units form the basis of the IATS serotyping scheme. Knirel et al. (2006) have made a significant contribution to our understanding of all the serotypes by -systematically -elucidating the chemical structures of the OSA of all 20 IATS serotypes (Table 1). To appreciate the complexity and diversity of LPS produced by P. aeruginosa, it is noteworthy that heterogeneity exists in the chain length of either form of O-Ag present on the cell surface used to “cap” the core OS of P. aeruginosa (Figure 1). This accounts for the “ladder-banding” pattern when LPS from P. aeruginosa is analyzed by silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels and Western immunoblotting (Rocchetta et al., 1998a).


Genetic and Functional Diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide.

Lam JS, Taylor VL, Islam ST, Hao Y, Kocíncová D - Front Microbiol (2011)

Representations of the heterogeneity/diversity of the LPS glycoforms present on the surface of a single P. aeruginosa cell. Genetic defects in members of various assembly pathway genes and their resultant changes to the variety of LPS glycoforms present have been indicated, with “✓” or “✗” representing their presence or absence, respectively. Substitutions of various lipid A and core OS sugars with phosphate groups and L-Ala have been indicated with yellow circles and red diamonds, respectively. The OSA polymer from serotype O5 has been displayed as a representative polymer.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108286&req=5

Figure 1: Representations of the heterogeneity/diversity of the LPS glycoforms present on the surface of a single P. aeruginosa cell. Genetic defects in members of various assembly pathway genes and their resultant changes to the variety of LPS glycoforms present have been indicated, with “✓” or “✗” representing their presence or absence, respectively. Substitutions of various lipid A and core OS sugars with phosphate groups and L-Ala have been indicated with yellow circles and red diamonds, respectively. The OSA polymer from serotype O5 has been displayed as a representative polymer.
Mentions: Most P. aeruginosa strains produce two different forms of O-Ag, one of which contains a homopolymer of D-rhamnose, arranged in α1 → 3, α1 → 2, α1 → 3 trisaccharide repeats. This homopolymeric D-rhamnan is the common polysaccharide antigen (CPA; formerly termed A band) among P. aeruginosa strains. More details of the properties of CPA will be discussed in later sections. The other form of O-Ag produced by P. aeruginosa is a heteropolymer with three to five distinct sugars in its repeat units, and is named O-specific antigen (OSA; formerly termed B band). The differences of the composition of the O units form the basis of the IATS serotyping scheme. Knirel et al. (2006) have made a significant contribution to our understanding of all the serotypes by -systematically -elucidating the chemical structures of the OSA of all 20 IATS serotypes (Table 1). To appreciate the complexity and diversity of LPS produced by P. aeruginosa, it is noteworthy that heterogeneity exists in the chain length of either form of O-Ag present on the cell surface used to “cap” the core OS of P. aeruginosa (Figure 1). This accounts for the “ladder-banding” pattern when LPS from P. aeruginosa is analyzed by silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels and Western immunoblotting (Rocchetta et al., 1998a).

Bottom Line: Most P. aeruginosa strains produce two distinct forms of O-Ag, one a homopolymer of D-rhamnose that is a common polysaccharide antigen (CPA, formerly termed A band), and the other a heteropolymer of three to five distinct (and often unique dideoxy) sugars in its repeat units, known as O-specific antigen (OSA, formerly termed B band).Compositional differences in the O units among the OSA from different strains form the basis of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme for classification via serotyping of different strains of P. aeruginosa.The focus of this review is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge on the genetic and resultant functional diversity of LPS produced by P. aeruginosa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph Guelph, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Lipopolysccharide (LPS) is an integral component of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell envelope, occupying the outer leaflet of the outer membrane in this Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen. It is important for bacterium-host interactions and has been shown to be a major virulence factor for this organism. Structurally, P. aeruginosa LPS is composed of three domains, namely, lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and the distal O antigen (O-Ag). Most P. aeruginosa strains produce two distinct forms of O-Ag, one a homopolymer of D-rhamnose that is a common polysaccharide antigen (CPA, formerly termed A band), and the other a heteropolymer of three to five distinct (and often unique dideoxy) sugars in its repeat units, known as O-specific antigen (OSA, formerly termed B band). Compositional differences in the O units among the OSA from different strains form the basis of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme for classification via serotyping of different strains of P. aeruginosa. The focus of this review is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge on the genetic and resultant functional diversity of LPS produced by P. aeruginosa. The underlying factors contributing to this diversity will be thoroughly discussed and presented in the context of its contributions to host-pathogen interactions and the control/prevention of infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus