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Skin displacement analysis (SDA): a tool for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by underlying muscles in the face and neck area.

Proebstle TM - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2011)

Bottom Line: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively.In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Quantitative numerical analysis of skin displacement triggered by muscles inserting the overlaying skin would be useful for monitoring the inhibition of mimetic muscles.

Methods: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.

Results: At baseline, amplitudes of horizontal skin displacement with fronto-glabellar contraction showed a linear increase along the eyebrow laterally from the midline; mean values (±standard deviation [SD]) 15 and 30 mm lateral to the midline were 3.2 ± 1.0 mm (range, 1.9-4.9 mm) and 6.5 ± 1.4 mm (range 4.0-8.5 mm), respectively. After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively. In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: SDA is a feasible method for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by muscles inserting the overlaying skin in the face and neck area.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-dependent reduction of contraction-induced horizontal skin displacement after injection of BoNT/A. A) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes from Day 0 pre-treatment to Day 7 post-treatment of the patient shown in Figure 1. Again, analyzed grid points of interest ran laterally from the midline, immediately above the eyebrow. B) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 individual patients at the injection site 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow (X2, Y2 in Figure 1B, 1C), normalized to the individual pre-treatment maximum. C) Mean values ± standard deviation of the 13 patients shown in Figure 3B. D) Normalized mean reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 patients at points of interest 15−45 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow.
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f3-ccid-4-027: Time-dependent reduction of contraction-induced horizontal skin displacement after injection of BoNT/A. A) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes from Day 0 pre-treatment to Day 7 post-treatment of the patient shown in Figure 1. Again, analyzed grid points of interest ran laterally from the midline, immediately above the eyebrow. B) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 individual patients at the injection site 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow (X2, Y2 in Figure 1B, 1C), normalized to the individual pre-treatment maximum. C) Mean values ± standard deviation of the 13 patients shown in Figure 3B. D) Normalized mean reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 patients at points of interest 15−45 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow.

Mentions: Figure 3A shows the horizontal skin displacement amplitudes from a relaxed to a contracted state for the patient shown in Figure 1 at Days 0 (pre-injection), 1, 2, 3, and 7. Skin displacement analysis was performed on the grid points located immediately above the right eyebrow. Similar to the variability of horizontal skin displacement before BoNT/A injection in different patients (Figures 2A and 2B), the BoNT/A-induced reduction in horizontal skin displacement amplitude in the fronto-glabellar area also showed intersubject variability. To allow better comparison of BoNT/A action kinetics, data obtained at Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 (post-injection) were normalized to each subject’s skin displacement data obtained at Day 0 (pre-injection).


Skin displacement analysis (SDA): a tool for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by underlying muscles in the face and neck area.

Proebstle TM - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2011)

Time-dependent reduction of contraction-induced horizontal skin displacement after injection of BoNT/A. A) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes from Day 0 pre-treatment to Day 7 post-treatment of the patient shown in Figure 1. Again, analyzed grid points of interest ran laterally from the midline, immediately above the eyebrow. B) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 individual patients at the injection site 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow (X2, Y2 in Figure 1B, 1C), normalized to the individual pre-treatment maximum. C) Mean values ± standard deviation of the 13 patients shown in Figure 3B. D) Normalized mean reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 patients at points of interest 15−45 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108281&req=5

f3-ccid-4-027: Time-dependent reduction of contraction-induced horizontal skin displacement after injection of BoNT/A. A) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes from Day 0 pre-treatment to Day 7 post-treatment of the patient shown in Figure 1. Again, analyzed grid points of interest ran laterally from the midline, immediately above the eyebrow. B) Reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 individual patients at the injection site 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow (X2, Y2 in Figure 1B, 1C), normalized to the individual pre-treatment maximum. C) Mean values ± standard deviation of the 13 patients shown in Figure 3B. D) Normalized mean reduction of horizontal skin displacement amplitudes of 13 patients at points of interest 15−45 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow.
Mentions: Figure 3A shows the horizontal skin displacement amplitudes from a relaxed to a contracted state for the patient shown in Figure 1 at Days 0 (pre-injection), 1, 2, 3, and 7. Skin displacement analysis was performed on the grid points located immediately above the right eyebrow. Similar to the variability of horizontal skin displacement before BoNT/A injection in different patients (Figures 2A and 2B), the BoNT/A-induced reduction in horizontal skin displacement amplitude in the fronto-glabellar area also showed intersubject variability. To allow better comparison of BoNT/A action kinetics, data obtained at Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 (post-injection) were normalized to each subject’s skin displacement data obtained at Day 0 (pre-injection).

Bottom Line: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively.In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Quantitative numerical analysis of skin displacement triggered by muscles inserting the overlaying skin would be useful for monitoring the inhibition of mimetic muscles.

Methods: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.

Results: At baseline, amplitudes of horizontal skin displacement with fronto-glabellar contraction showed a linear increase along the eyebrow laterally from the midline; mean values (±standard deviation [SD]) 15 and 30 mm lateral to the midline were 3.2 ± 1.0 mm (range, 1.9-4.9 mm) and 6.5 ± 1.4 mm (range 4.0-8.5 mm), respectively. After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively. In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: SDA is a feasible method for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by muscles inserting the overlaying skin in the face and neck area.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus