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Skin displacement analysis (SDA): a tool for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by underlying muscles in the face and neck area.

Proebstle TM - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2011)

Bottom Line: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively.In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Quantitative numerical analysis of skin displacement triggered by muscles inserting the overlaying skin would be useful for monitoring the inhibition of mimetic muscles.

Methods: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.

Results: At baseline, amplitudes of horizontal skin displacement with fronto-glabellar contraction showed a linear increase along the eyebrow laterally from the midline; mean values (±standard deviation [SD]) 15 and 30 mm lateral to the midline were 3.2 ± 1.0 mm (range, 1.9-4.9 mm) and 6.5 ± 1.4 mm (range 4.0-8.5 mm), respectively. After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively. In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: SDA is a feasible method for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by muscles inserting the overlaying skin in the face and neck area.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A) Pre-treatment patient with relaxed fronto-glabellar area and a removable 5 mm grid on the central and right frontal region. Numbers indicate the injection sites with corresponding number of BoNT/A units injected. B) Relaxed muscle tension. The point of interest 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow, was marked with two perpendicular black lines, coordinates (X2; Y2). The reference point of the geometric system at the inner canthus of the right eye was marked (X1; Y1) and subtracted from any point of interest for the purpose of calibration. C) Maximum fronto-glabellar contraction with otherwise identical markings as in Figure 1B. The horizontal movement of the point of interest from Figure 1B (relaxed) to Figure 1C (contraction) was calculated in pixels as ΔX = [(X2 contraction − X1) − (X2 relaxed − X1)].
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f1-ccid-4-027: A) Pre-treatment patient with relaxed fronto-glabellar area and a removable 5 mm grid on the central and right frontal region. Numbers indicate the injection sites with corresponding number of BoNT/A units injected. B) Relaxed muscle tension. The point of interest 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow, was marked with two perpendicular black lines, coordinates (X2; Y2). The reference point of the geometric system at the inner canthus of the right eye was marked (X1; Y1) and subtracted from any point of interest for the purpose of calibration. C) Maximum fronto-glabellar contraction with otherwise identical markings as in Figure 1B. The horizontal movement of the point of interest from Figure 1B (relaxed) to Figure 1C (contraction) was calculated in pixels as ΔX = [(X2 contraction − X1) − (X2 relaxed − X1)].

Mentions: Consenting individuals requesting routine fronto-glabellar BoNT/A injections were treated with BoNT/A at a standardized dosage. Patients were marked on the right and central frontal area with a removable 0.25 cm2 grid (Thermage Inc, Hayward, CA, USA), thus providing a length of 5 mm between 2 crossings (Figure 1A). Facial photo-documentation was carried out pre-treatment (Day 0) and during the week after administration of the toxin (Days 1, 2, 3, and 7), as described below. The grid was placed immediately before each measurement and removed afterwards.


Skin displacement analysis (SDA): a tool for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by underlying muscles in the face and neck area.

Proebstle TM - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2011)

A) Pre-treatment patient with relaxed fronto-glabellar area and a removable 5 mm grid on the central and right frontal region. Numbers indicate the injection sites with corresponding number of BoNT/A units injected. B) Relaxed muscle tension. The point of interest 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow, was marked with two perpendicular black lines, coordinates (X2; Y2). The reference point of the geometric system at the inner canthus of the right eye was marked (X1; Y1) and subtracted from any point of interest for the purpose of calibration. C) Maximum fronto-glabellar contraction with otherwise identical markings as in Figure 1B. The horizontal movement of the point of interest from Figure 1B (relaxed) to Figure 1C (contraction) was calculated in pixels as ΔX = [(X2 contraction − X1) − (X2 relaxed − X1)].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108281&req=5

f1-ccid-4-027: A) Pre-treatment patient with relaxed fronto-glabellar area and a removable 5 mm grid on the central and right frontal region. Numbers indicate the injection sites with corresponding number of BoNT/A units injected. B) Relaxed muscle tension. The point of interest 30 mm lateral to the midline, immediately above the eyebrow, was marked with two perpendicular black lines, coordinates (X2; Y2). The reference point of the geometric system at the inner canthus of the right eye was marked (X1; Y1) and subtracted from any point of interest for the purpose of calibration. C) Maximum fronto-glabellar contraction with otherwise identical markings as in Figure 1B. The horizontal movement of the point of interest from Figure 1B (relaxed) to Figure 1C (contraction) was calculated in pixels as ΔX = [(X2 contraction − X1) − (X2 relaxed − X1)].
Mentions: Consenting individuals requesting routine fronto-glabellar BoNT/A injections were treated with BoNT/A at a standardized dosage. Patients were marked on the right and central frontal area with a removable 0.25 cm2 grid (Thermage Inc, Hayward, CA, USA), thus providing a length of 5 mm between 2 crossings (Figure 1A). Facial photo-documentation was carried out pre-treatment (Day 0) and during the week after administration of the toxin (Days 1, 2, 3, and 7), as described below. The grid was placed immediately before each measurement and removed afterwards.

Bottom Line: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively.In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Quantitative numerical analysis of skin displacement triggered by muscles inserting the overlaying skin would be useful for monitoring the inhibition of mimetic muscles.

Methods: By using removable grid markings and digital photographs, skin displacement analysis (SDA) was performed on 13 patients pre-treatment and on Days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after injection of 18 units of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the fronto-glabellar area.

Results: At baseline, amplitudes of horizontal skin displacement with fronto-glabellar contraction showed a linear increase along the eyebrow laterally from the midline; mean values (±standard deviation [SD]) 15 and 30 mm lateral to the midline were 3.2 ± 1.0 mm (range, 1.9-4.9 mm) and 6.5 ± 1.4 mm (range 4.0-8.5 mm), respectively. After injection of BoNT/A, maximum horizontal skin displacement 30 mm lateral to the midline showed a mean reduction (±SD) to 62% ± 23% at Day 2 and to 17% ± 16% at Day 7; corresponding values 15 mm lateral to the midline were 62% ± 29% and 15% ± 20%, respectively. In all cases, the reduction in horizontal skin displacement compared with pre-injection levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: SDA is a feasible method for the quantitative evaluation of skin movements elicited by muscles inserting the overlaying skin in the face and neck area.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus