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Dietary unsaturated fatty acids affect the mammary gland integrity and health in lactating dairy cows.

Mach N, van Baal J, Kruijt L, Jacobs A, Smits M - BMC Proc (2011)

Bottom Line: On the last day of both periods, mammary gland biopsies were taken to study genome-wide differences in gene expression on Bovine Genome Arrays.Supplementation with UFA reduced the concentration of short chain fatty acids (FA), C16 FA and saturated FA in the milk, whereas that of trans-FA increased.One major finding was that canonical pathways associated with remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland were predominantly down-regulated during UFA supplementation and negatively correlated with the concentration of milk trans-FA.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen UR Livestock Research, P,O, Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands. nuria.mach@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: Information about the effects of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) supplementation on the health and integrity of the mammary gland in lactating dairy cows is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary UFA on the global expression pattern of genes in the mammary gland tissue of grazing dairy cows, and to translate this information into relevant biological knowledge.

Methods: Twenty-eight Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 4 different concentrated UFA-sources for 23 days after which all cows were switched to a non-UFA-supplemented concentrate for an additional 28 days. On the last day of both periods, mammary gland biopsies were taken to study genome-wide differences in gene expression on Bovine Genome Arrays.

Results: Supplementation with UFA reduced the concentration of short chain fatty acids (FA), C16 FA and saturated FA in the milk, whereas that of trans-FA increased. One major finding was that canonical pathways associated with remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland were predominantly down-regulated during UFA supplementation and negatively correlated with the concentration of milk trans-FA.

Conclusions: Supplementing grazing dairy cows with unprotected dietary UFA can affect the remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland with potential consequences for its integrity and health, as well as milk quality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Milk fatty acids correlated to remodelling and immune response related-genes. Heat map of the correlations between the 78 significantly expressed genes involved in remodelling and immune response-related genes when comparing dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid relative to the same cows fed a control diet, and the milk fatty acids content. The 78 immune function-related genes were identified by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and presented a Fold Change (FC) ≥ 1.3 and a false discovery rate (FDR) q-values < 0.05. The horizontal rows of the map represent genes, whereas the columns represent the different groups of fatty acids. Each pixel represents the correlation value between each gene and group of fatty acids: the colours depict the coefficient of correlation from green (large negative) to red (large positive). * indicates gene signatures that presented a significant correlation with the FA in milk
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Figure 1: Milk fatty acids correlated to remodelling and immune response related-genes. Heat map of the correlations between the 78 significantly expressed genes involved in remodelling and immune response-related genes when comparing dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid relative to the same cows fed a control diet, and the milk fatty acids content. The 78 immune function-related genes were identified by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and presented a Fold Change (FC) ≥ 1.3 and a false discovery rate (FDR) q-values < 0.05. The horizontal rows of the map represent genes, whereas the columns represent the different groups of fatty acids. Each pixel represents the correlation value between each gene and group of fatty acids: the colours depict the coefficient of correlation from green (large negative) to red (large positive). * indicates gene signatures that presented a significant correlation with the FA in milk

Mentions: Little is known about remodelling, defense, and inflammatory and immune-related genes in response to dietary UFA supplementation in dairy cows. However, results presented here suggest that dietary UFA supplementation may affect mammary gland tissue integrity and cell adhesion, as well as immune functions, and thus may modify the susceptibility to mastitis in lactating cows and the resulting quality of milk. To determine whether the expression of these genes correlated with specific milk FA, we then studied the association between the set of 78-remodelling and immune response genes and different groups of FA. As depicted in Figure 1, we detected that the characterized FA groups could be divided into two main clusters, each with a distinctive correlation value to remodelling and immune response genes. A novel finding was that the first main cluster included the milk trans-FA and CLA isomers, and the second cluster the other groups of FA (SFA, C16, SCFA, n-3, n-6, and LCFA, UFA, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)). Furthermore, whereas trans-FA and CLA isomers negatively correlated with remodelling and immune response gene expressions (Figure 1), the other groups of FA showed a positive correlation with the level of remodelling and immune response gene expressions. This results are supported by the discovery that t10,c12 CLA isomer modulated the regulation of gene expression associated with immune system [3]. However, evidence for the effects of trans-FA on remodelling and immune-gene expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows is currently lacking. Remarkably, the regulation of gene expression by these FAs seems to be due to changes in the expression of different cell signalling and transcription factors related to a wide range of metabolic and developmental functions, among them, P53, ZFP36 (zinc finger protein 36) and SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; Figure 1). ZFP36 has anti-inflammatory activity by binding to and destabilizing pro-inflammatory mRNAs, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNA [4]. Further, P53 is a transcription factor regulating DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence [5], and SREBP1 is a key regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Notably, recent results suggest that the immune system, through Lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTBR) signalling, directly influences the enzymatic regulation of lipid homeostasis and thus the SREBP1 activation [6]. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which FA control specific gene expression may provide insight into the development of new nutrition strategies for a better management of milk quality and mammary gland health status.


Dietary unsaturated fatty acids affect the mammary gland integrity and health in lactating dairy cows.

Mach N, van Baal J, Kruijt L, Jacobs A, Smits M - BMC Proc (2011)

Milk fatty acids correlated to remodelling and immune response related-genes. Heat map of the correlations between the 78 significantly expressed genes involved in remodelling and immune response-related genes when comparing dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid relative to the same cows fed a control diet, and the milk fatty acids content. The 78 immune function-related genes were identified by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and presented a Fold Change (FC) ≥ 1.3 and a false discovery rate (FDR) q-values < 0.05. The horizontal rows of the map represent genes, whereas the columns represent the different groups of fatty acids. Each pixel represents the correlation value between each gene and group of fatty acids: the colours depict the coefficient of correlation from green (large negative) to red (large positive). * indicates gene signatures that presented a significant correlation with the FA in milk
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108231&req=5

Figure 1: Milk fatty acids correlated to remodelling and immune response related-genes. Heat map of the correlations between the 78 significantly expressed genes involved in remodelling and immune response-related genes when comparing dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid relative to the same cows fed a control diet, and the milk fatty acids content. The 78 immune function-related genes were identified by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and presented a Fold Change (FC) ≥ 1.3 and a false discovery rate (FDR) q-values < 0.05. The horizontal rows of the map represent genes, whereas the columns represent the different groups of fatty acids. Each pixel represents the correlation value between each gene and group of fatty acids: the colours depict the coefficient of correlation from green (large negative) to red (large positive). * indicates gene signatures that presented a significant correlation with the FA in milk
Mentions: Little is known about remodelling, defense, and inflammatory and immune-related genes in response to dietary UFA supplementation in dairy cows. However, results presented here suggest that dietary UFA supplementation may affect mammary gland tissue integrity and cell adhesion, as well as immune functions, and thus may modify the susceptibility to mastitis in lactating cows and the resulting quality of milk. To determine whether the expression of these genes correlated with specific milk FA, we then studied the association between the set of 78-remodelling and immune response genes and different groups of FA. As depicted in Figure 1, we detected that the characterized FA groups could be divided into two main clusters, each with a distinctive correlation value to remodelling and immune response genes. A novel finding was that the first main cluster included the milk trans-FA and CLA isomers, and the second cluster the other groups of FA (SFA, C16, SCFA, n-3, n-6, and LCFA, UFA, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)). Furthermore, whereas trans-FA and CLA isomers negatively correlated with remodelling and immune response gene expressions (Figure 1), the other groups of FA showed a positive correlation with the level of remodelling and immune response gene expressions. This results are supported by the discovery that t10,c12 CLA isomer modulated the regulation of gene expression associated with immune system [3]. However, evidence for the effects of trans-FA on remodelling and immune-gene expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows is currently lacking. Remarkably, the regulation of gene expression by these FAs seems to be due to changes in the expression of different cell signalling and transcription factors related to a wide range of metabolic and developmental functions, among them, P53, ZFP36 (zinc finger protein 36) and SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; Figure 1). ZFP36 has anti-inflammatory activity by binding to and destabilizing pro-inflammatory mRNAs, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNA [4]. Further, P53 is a transcription factor regulating DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence [5], and SREBP1 is a key regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Notably, recent results suggest that the immune system, through Lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTBR) signalling, directly influences the enzymatic regulation of lipid homeostasis and thus the SREBP1 activation [6]. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which FA control specific gene expression may provide insight into the development of new nutrition strategies for a better management of milk quality and mammary gland health status.

Bottom Line: On the last day of both periods, mammary gland biopsies were taken to study genome-wide differences in gene expression on Bovine Genome Arrays.Supplementation with UFA reduced the concentration of short chain fatty acids (FA), C16 FA and saturated FA in the milk, whereas that of trans-FA increased.One major finding was that canonical pathways associated with remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland were predominantly down-regulated during UFA supplementation and negatively correlated with the concentration of milk trans-FA.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen UR Livestock Research, P,O, Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands. nuria.mach@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: Information about the effects of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) supplementation on the health and integrity of the mammary gland in lactating dairy cows is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary UFA on the global expression pattern of genes in the mammary gland tissue of grazing dairy cows, and to translate this information into relevant biological knowledge.

Methods: Twenty-eight Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 4 different concentrated UFA-sources for 23 days after which all cows were switched to a non-UFA-supplemented concentrate for an additional 28 days. On the last day of both periods, mammary gland biopsies were taken to study genome-wide differences in gene expression on Bovine Genome Arrays.

Results: Supplementation with UFA reduced the concentration of short chain fatty acids (FA), C16 FA and saturated FA in the milk, whereas that of trans-FA increased. One major finding was that canonical pathways associated with remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland were predominantly down-regulated during UFA supplementation and negatively correlated with the concentration of milk trans-FA.

Conclusions: Supplementing grazing dairy cows with unprotected dietary UFA can affect the remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland with potential consequences for its integrity and health, as well as milk quality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus