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Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections.

Kim CH, Lillehoj HS, Hong YH, Keeler CL, Lillehoj EP - BMC Proc (2011)

Bottom Line: Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes.The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis.Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. Hyun.Lillehoj@ars.usda.gov.

ABSTRACT

Background: Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens.

Methods: In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria acervulina using a 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA).

Results: Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes. By contrast, secondary infection increased the levels of transcripts encoded by genes related to humoral immunity and reduced the levels of transcripts for the innate immune-related genes. The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biological processes of Gene Ontology of down-regulated genes during primary or secondary E. acervulina infections. COB, cell organization and biogenesis, DDG, development, differentiation, and growth; NNNM, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism.
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Figure 3: Biological processes of Gene Ontology of down-regulated genes during primary or secondary E. acervulina infections. COB, cell organization and biogenesis, DDG, development, differentiation, and growth; NNNM, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism.

Mentions: Functional analysis of gene profiles provides a global view of host-parasite interactions and pathogenic mechanisms during avian coccidiosis. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, GO analysis showed that the greatest number of altered levels of transcripts occurred for genes involved in lipid metabolism, general metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and transport. However, when comparing primary vs. secondary infections, it was readily apparent that while transcripts of genes for metabolism were highly altered during primary infection, those for immunity were modulated to a greater extent during secondary infection. Transcripts for genes related to signal transduction, transcription, translation, and transport generally appeared to be altered to equivalent extents during primary and secondary infection. To classify significantly changed biological processes during E. acervulina infections, the GO processes identified in Figures 2 and 3 were further analyzed using EASE program according to biological processes with terms at level 4 and significance analyses with a minimum of 2 genes at FDR < 0.1. EASE provides statistical methods for discovering enriched biological themes within gene lists [11]. During primary infection, genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (p < 0.001), cell-cell adhesion (p < 0.05), lipid metabolism (p < 0.001), response to oxidative stress (p < 0.05), and immune response/defense (p < 0.001) were identified as the most affected, whereas during secondary infection only immune response/defense-related genes were identified (p < 0.001) (data not shown).


Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections.

Kim CH, Lillehoj HS, Hong YH, Keeler CL, Lillehoj EP - BMC Proc (2011)

Biological processes of Gene Ontology of down-regulated genes during primary or secondary E. acervulina infections. COB, cell organization and biogenesis, DDG, development, differentiation, and growth; NNNM, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108206&req=5

Figure 3: Biological processes of Gene Ontology of down-regulated genes during primary or secondary E. acervulina infections. COB, cell organization and biogenesis, DDG, development, differentiation, and growth; NNNM, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism.
Mentions: Functional analysis of gene profiles provides a global view of host-parasite interactions and pathogenic mechanisms during avian coccidiosis. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, GO analysis showed that the greatest number of altered levels of transcripts occurred for genes involved in lipid metabolism, general metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and transport. However, when comparing primary vs. secondary infections, it was readily apparent that while transcripts of genes for metabolism were highly altered during primary infection, those for immunity were modulated to a greater extent during secondary infection. Transcripts for genes related to signal transduction, transcription, translation, and transport generally appeared to be altered to equivalent extents during primary and secondary infection. To classify significantly changed biological processes during E. acervulina infections, the GO processes identified in Figures 2 and 3 were further analyzed using EASE program according to biological processes with terms at level 4 and significance analyses with a minimum of 2 genes at FDR < 0.1. EASE provides statistical methods for discovering enriched biological themes within gene lists [11]. During primary infection, genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (p < 0.001), cell-cell adhesion (p < 0.05), lipid metabolism (p < 0.001), response to oxidative stress (p < 0.05), and immune response/defense (p < 0.001) were identified as the most affected, whereas during secondary infection only immune response/defense-related genes were identified (p < 0.001) (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes.The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis.Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. Hyun.Lillehoj@ars.usda.gov.

ABSTRACT

Background: Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens.

Methods: In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria acervulina using a 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA).

Results: Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes. By contrast, secondary infection increased the levels of transcripts encoded by genes related to humoral immunity and reduced the levels of transcripts for the innate immune-related genes. The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus