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Review of pesticide urinary biomarker measurements from selected US EPA children's observational exposure studies.

Egeghy PP, Cohen Hubal EA, Tulve NS, Melnyk LJ, Morgan MK, Fortmann RC, Sheldon LS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations.Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations.Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA. egeghy.peter@epa.gov

ABSTRACT
Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children's exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The contributions of inhalation, dermal absorption, indirect ingestion, and dietary ingestion to aggregate intake of cis-permethrin in CTEPP-OH (n = 85).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f4-ijerph-08-01727: The contributions of inhalation, dermal absorption, indirect ingestion, and dietary ingestion to aggregate intake of cis-permethrin in CTEPP-OH (n = 85).

Mentions: Another factor that may contribute to the poor correlations observed between dietary ingestion and urinary biomarkers may be great variability in indirect intake from hand-to-mouth contact among children [87]. As illustrated in Figure 4 using data from 85 CTEPP-OH participants with a complete set of air, dermal, dust, soil, and food measurements, the contribution of diet to aggregate cis-permethrin intake generally decreases (as percent of total contribution) as aggregate intake increases; conversely, indirect ingestion becomes increasingly important with increasing aggregate intake.


Review of pesticide urinary biomarker measurements from selected US EPA children's observational exposure studies.

Egeghy PP, Cohen Hubal EA, Tulve NS, Melnyk LJ, Morgan MK, Fortmann RC, Sheldon LS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

The contributions of inhalation, dermal absorption, indirect ingestion, and dietary ingestion to aggregate intake of cis-permethrin in CTEPP-OH (n = 85).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108137&req=5

f4-ijerph-08-01727: The contributions of inhalation, dermal absorption, indirect ingestion, and dietary ingestion to aggregate intake of cis-permethrin in CTEPP-OH (n = 85).
Mentions: Another factor that may contribute to the poor correlations observed between dietary ingestion and urinary biomarkers may be great variability in indirect intake from hand-to-mouth contact among children [87]. As illustrated in Figure 4 using data from 85 CTEPP-OH participants with a complete set of air, dermal, dust, soil, and food measurements, the contribution of diet to aggregate cis-permethrin intake generally decreases (as percent of total contribution) as aggregate intake increases; conversely, indirect ingestion becomes increasingly important with increasing aggregate intake.

Bottom Line: Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations.Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations.Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA. egeghy.peter@epa.gov

ABSTRACT
Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children's exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus