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Review of pesticide urinary biomarker measurements from selected US EPA children's observational exposure studies.

Egeghy PP, Cohen Hubal EA, Tulve NS, Melnyk LJ, Morgan MK, Fortmann RC, Sheldon LS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations.Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations.Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA. egeghy.peter@epa.gov

ABSTRACT
Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children's exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-concentration profile for urinary IMP measurements among child and adult PET study participants following an outdoor granular turf pesticide application.
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f3-ijerph-08-01727: Time-concentration profile for urinary IMP measurements among child and adult PET study participants following an outdoor granular turf pesticide application.

Mentions: Change in urinary metabolite levels was also investigated with diazinon in the PET study with lawn applications [54] and the DIYC study with indoor applications. While no statistically significant difference in pre- and post-application urinary IMP concentrations was reported by the authors of the PET study, the time-concentration profile appears to show an observable decay in children’s urinary biomarker concentrations in the eight days following the outdoor lawn application (Figure 3). The pattern among adults is not consistent with that among children, perhaps reflecting differences in exposure patterns between adults and children [77]. IMP concentrations in the first morning voids (FMV) of the DIYC children did not decay steadily over time, but behaved similarly to the adults in the PET study (data not shown). The difference between indoor and outdoor application may be a factor in the pattern changes.


Review of pesticide urinary biomarker measurements from selected US EPA children's observational exposure studies.

Egeghy PP, Cohen Hubal EA, Tulve NS, Melnyk LJ, Morgan MK, Fortmann RC, Sheldon LS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Time-concentration profile for urinary IMP measurements among child and adult PET study participants following an outdoor granular turf pesticide application.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108137&req=5

f3-ijerph-08-01727: Time-concentration profile for urinary IMP measurements among child and adult PET study participants following an outdoor granular turf pesticide application.
Mentions: Change in urinary metabolite levels was also investigated with diazinon in the PET study with lawn applications [54] and the DIYC study with indoor applications. While no statistically significant difference in pre- and post-application urinary IMP concentrations was reported by the authors of the PET study, the time-concentration profile appears to show an observable decay in children’s urinary biomarker concentrations in the eight days following the outdoor lawn application (Figure 3). The pattern among adults is not consistent with that among children, perhaps reflecting differences in exposure patterns between adults and children [77]. IMP concentrations in the first morning voids (FMV) of the DIYC children did not decay steadily over time, but behaved similarly to the adults in the PET study (data not shown). The difference between indoor and outdoor application may be a factor in the pattern changes.

Bottom Line: Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations.Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations.Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA. egeghy.peter@epa.gov

ABSTRACT
Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children's exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus