Limits...
The evaluation for alterations of DOM components from upstream to downstream flow of rivers in Toyama (Japan) using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

Sazawa K, Tachi M, Wakimoto T, Kawakami T, Hata N, Taguchi S, Kuramitz H - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: However, the correlations between the RFI values for other four peaks and the DOC concentration were below 0.287.It was clarified that the great increase of RFI values in peak A and peak T from river water located in urban area showed high concentration of PO(4)-P and Fe(3+), and low N/P ratio due to the high biological activities.The values of fluorescence index (FIX) and biological index (BIX) were as high as 1.60 and 0.72, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555, Japan. d1071303@ems.u-toyama.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the important factors for controlling water quality. The behavior and constitutions of DOM is related to the risk of human health because it is able to directly or indirectly affect the behavior, speciation and toxicity of various environmental pollutants. However, it is not easy to know the contents of DOM components without using various complicated and time consuming analytical methods because DOM is a complex mixture and usually exists at low concentration. Here, we describe the fluorescence properties of DOM components in water samples collected from four rivers in Toyama, Japan by means of the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the alterations of DOM components in each of the river during the flow from upstream to downstream, the patterns of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) at six peaks which are originated from fluorophores including humic-like and protein-like components were investigated. The changes in the patterns of RFI values at each of the peak and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for each river water sample were discussed in connection with the differences of land use managements and basic water quality parameters, such as pH, EC, turbidity, Fe(3+), T-N, NO(3)-N, T-P, PO(4)-P, chlorophyll a, DOC and N/P ratio. The DOC concentrations in the water samples collected from these rivers were relatively low (0.63-1.16 mg/L). Two main peaks which have a strong RFI value expressed a positive correlation with the DOC concentration (r = 0.557, 0.535). However, the correlations between the RFI values for other four peaks and the DOC concentration were below 0.287. The alterations of DOM components during the flow of a river from upstream to downstream were investigated from the changes in the patterns of RFI values for six fluorescent peaks. It was clarified that the great increase of RFI values in peak A and peak T from river water located in urban area showed high concentration of PO(4)-P and Fe(3+), and low N/P ratio due to the high biological activities. The values of fluorescence index (FIX) and biological index (BIX) were as high as 1.60 and 0.72, respectively.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

The location of Oyabe River, Shou River, Jinzu River, and Jyouganji River in Toyama, Japan and the sampling sites.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108133&req=5

f1-ijerph-08-01655: The location of Oyabe River, Shou River, Jinzu River, and Jyouganji River in Toyama, Japan and the sampling sites.

Mentions: The four rivers, namely the Oyabe River, Shou River, Jinzu River and Jyouganji River, flow into Toyama Bay and they are specified as first-grade rivers by the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The map of sampling sites and some information about land usage management in the area are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, respectively. The land usage management image measured by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was obtained from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The upstream of all four rivers are located in deciduous forest except for the Oyabe River (length is 68 km, basin area is 667 km2, flow rate is 58.3 m3/s) which is an anfractuous river which flows through an area of consisting of crops and paddies (site 1 to site 3), the downstream of this river passes through a sewage plant and a prime industrial area (site 3 to site 4). Moreover, two tributaries are located between site 1 and site 2 which are used for agriculture. Three tributaries between site 3 and site 4 are from the urban and industrial area. The population in the Oyabe River watershed is about 300,000. Shou River (length is 115 km, basin area is 1,189 km2, flow rate is 36.5 m3/s), which is located next to Oyabe River, flows through a paddy area and the watershed population is about 28,000. There is no significant tributary input to the Shou River. Jinzu River (length is 120 km, basin area of 2,720 km2, flow rate is 175.2 m3/s) has the largest amount of water flow and the greatest watershed population of 380,000. This river is well-known for “Itai-itai disease” which was caused by cadmium poisoning in the early twenty century. There are two tributaries flowing between site 2 and site 3, site 3 and site 4, respectively. A paddy area is located around site 2 and the urban area makes up site 3 and site 4. Jyouganji River (length is 56 km, basin area is 368 km2, flow rate 22.0 m3/s) is a torrential river which flows from an altitude of ca. 3,000 m. The watershed population of this river is about 30,000. The upstream of this river is located in a rich forest area of the Tateyama mountain range. As for the Jyouganji River, one tributary flows through a deciduous forest existing between site 1 and site 2.


The evaluation for alterations of DOM components from upstream to downstream flow of rivers in Toyama (Japan) using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

Sazawa K, Tachi M, Wakimoto T, Kawakami T, Hata N, Taguchi S, Kuramitz H - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

The location of Oyabe River, Shou River, Jinzu River, and Jyouganji River in Toyama, Japan and the sampling sites.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108133&req=5

f1-ijerph-08-01655: The location of Oyabe River, Shou River, Jinzu River, and Jyouganji River in Toyama, Japan and the sampling sites.
Mentions: The four rivers, namely the Oyabe River, Shou River, Jinzu River and Jyouganji River, flow into Toyama Bay and they are specified as first-grade rivers by the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The map of sampling sites and some information about land usage management in the area are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, respectively. The land usage management image measured by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was obtained from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The upstream of all four rivers are located in deciduous forest except for the Oyabe River (length is 68 km, basin area is 667 km2, flow rate is 58.3 m3/s) which is an anfractuous river which flows through an area of consisting of crops and paddies (site 1 to site 3), the downstream of this river passes through a sewage plant and a prime industrial area (site 3 to site 4). Moreover, two tributaries are located between site 1 and site 2 which are used for agriculture. Three tributaries between site 3 and site 4 are from the urban and industrial area. The population in the Oyabe River watershed is about 300,000. Shou River (length is 115 km, basin area is 1,189 km2, flow rate is 36.5 m3/s), which is located next to Oyabe River, flows through a paddy area and the watershed population is about 28,000. There is no significant tributary input to the Shou River. Jinzu River (length is 120 km, basin area of 2,720 km2, flow rate is 175.2 m3/s) has the largest amount of water flow and the greatest watershed population of 380,000. This river is well-known for “Itai-itai disease” which was caused by cadmium poisoning in the early twenty century. There are two tributaries flowing between site 2 and site 3, site 3 and site 4, respectively. A paddy area is located around site 2 and the urban area makes up site 3 and site 4. Jyouganji River (length is 56 km, basin area is 368 km2, flow rate 22.0 m3/s) is a torrential river which flows from an altitude of ca. 3,000 m. The watershed population of this river is about 30,000. The upstream of this river is located in a rich forest area of the Tateyama mountain range. As for the Jyouganji River, one tributary flows through a deciduous forest existing between site 1 and site 2.

Bottom Line: However, the correlations between the RFI values for other four peaks and the DOC concentration were below 0.287.It was clarified that the great increase of RFI values in peak A and peak T from river water located in urban area showed high concentration of PO(4)-P and Fe(3+), and low N/P ratio due to the high biological activities.The values of fluorescence index (FIX) and biological index (BIX) were as high as 1.60 and 0.72, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555, Japan. d1071303@ems.u-toyama.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
The dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the important factors for controlling water quality. The behavior and constitutions of DOM is related to the risk of human health because it is able to directly or indirectly affect the behavior, speciation and toxicity of various environmental pollutants. However, it is not easy to know the contents of DOM components without using various complicated and time consuming analytical methods because DOM is a complex mixture and usually exists at low concentration. Here, we describe the fluorescence properties of DOM components in water samples collected from four rivers in Toyama, Japan by means of the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the alterations of DOM components in each of the river during the flow from upstream to downstream, the patterns of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) at six peaks which are originated from fluorophores including humic-like and protein-like components were investigated. The changes in the patterns of RFI values at each of the peak and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for each river water sample were discussed in connection with the differences of land use managements and basic water quality parameters, such as pH, EC, turbidity, Fe(3+), T-N, NO(3)-N, T-P, PO(4)-P, chlorophyll a, DOC and N/P ratio. The DOC concentrations in the water samples collected from these rivers were relatively low (0.63-1.16 mg/L). Two main peaks which have a strong RFI value expressed a positive correlation with the DOC concentration (r = 0.557, 0.535). However, the correlations between the RFI values for other four peaks and the DOC concentration were below 0.287. The alterations of DOM components during the flow of a river from upstream to downstream were investigated from the changes in the patterns of RFI values for six fluorescent peaks. It was clarified that the great increase of RFI values in peak A and peak T from river water located in urban area showed high concentration of PO(4)-P and Fe(3+), and low N/P ratio due to the high biological activities. The values of fluorescence index (FIX) and biological index (BIX) were as high as 1.60 and 0.72, respectively.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus