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Does secondhand smoke affect the development of dental caries in children? A systematic review.

Hanioka T, Ojima M, Tanaka K, Yamamoto M - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: One study did not select SHS as a significant variable.Three studies reported decreases in the risk of previous exposure, and the association was not significant.The results warrant further studies of deciduous teeth using a cohort format and basic studies regarding the underlying mechanism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan. haniokat@college.fdcnet.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
This review evaluated evidence of the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) and dental caries in children in epidemiological studies. Relevant literature was searched and screened, and the methodological quality was assessed. The search yielded 42 citations. High-quality studies including one cohort format and 14 case-control format studies were selected. Early childhood caries was examined in 11 studies. The independent association of SHS was significant in 10 studies, and the strength was mostly weak to moderate. One study did not select SHS as a significant variable. Three studies reported decreases in the risk of previous exposure, and the association was not significant. Dose-response relationships were evident in five studies. Permanent teeth were examined in seven studies. Five studies reported significant associations, which were mostly weak. The risk of previous exposure remained similar to that of current exposure, and a dose-response relationship was not evident in one study. The overall evidence for the causal association in early childhood caries is possible regarding epidemiological studies, and the evidence of permanent teeth and the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy were insufficient. The results warrant further studies of deciduous teeth using a cohort format and basic studies regarding the underlying mechanism.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary of the biological mechanism of SHS directly or indirectly affecting dental caries in children according to the traditional explanation of the etiology of dental caries.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f2-ijerph-08-01503: Summary of the biological mechanism of SHS directly or indirectly affecting dental caries in children according to the traditional explanation of the etiology of dental caries.

Mentions: The underlying mechanism could be explained as a modulation of existing etiology of dental caries. In the reviewed literature of epidemiological studies, several pathways were proposed for biological plausibility. These pathways were summarized on the basis of the traditional etiology of dental caries (Figure 2). SHS may directly influence tooth and oral microorganisms. Exposure to SHS during the period of tooth formation may influence mineralization [30–33]. Environmental cadmium exposure may be independently associated with increased risk of early childhood caries [34]. Colonization of cariogenic bacteria on rough tooth surfaces could be enhanced by SHS. The number of cariogenic microorganisms may increase with a decrease in immune function. Exposure to SHS may predispose subjects to infections through suppression or modulation of the immune system [35]. Blood levels of vitamin C in smokers and children who reside with smoking parents were decreased [36–38]. Decreased vitamin C levels were associated with the growth of S. mutans [39]. The influence of sugar would be an indirect and apparent relationship because of unhealthy lifestyles of smoking parents [40,41]. This effect, if any, may not be reflected in the effect size of risk estimate because of adjustment for this variable.


Does secondhand smoke affect the development of dental caries in children? A systematic review.

Hanioka T, Ojima M, Tanaka K, Yamamoto M - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Summary of the biological mechanism of SHS directly or indirectly affecting dental caries in children according to the traditional explanation of the etiology of dental caries.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108123&req=5

f2-ijerph-08-01503: Summary of the biological mechanism of SHS directly or indirectly affecting dental caries in children according to the traditional explanation of the etiology of dental caries.
Mentions: The underlying mechanism could be explained as a modulation of existing etiology of dental caries. In the reviewed literature of epidemiological studies, several pathways were proposed for biological plausibility. These pathways were summarized on the basis of the traditional etiology of dental caries (Figure 2). SHS may directly influence tooth and oral microorganisms. Exposure to SHS during the period of tooth formation may influence mineralization [30–33]. Environmental cadmium exposure may be independently associated with increased risk of early childhood caries [34]. Colonization of cariogenic bacteria on rough tooth surfaces could be enhanced by SHS. The number of cariogenic microorganisms may increase with a decrease in immune function. Exposure to SHS may predispose subjects to infections through suppression or modulation of the immune system [35]. Blood levels of vitamin C in smokers and children who reside with smoking parents were decreased [36–38]. Decreased vitamin C levels were associated with the growth of S. mutans [39]. The influence of sugar would be an indirect and apparent relationship because of unhealthy lifestyles of smoking parents [40,41]. This effect, if any, may not be reflected in the effect size of risk estimate because of adjustment for this variable.

Bottom Line: One study did not select SHS as a significant variable.Three studies reported decreases in the risk of previous exposure, and the association was not significant.The results warrant further studies of deciduous teeth using a cohort format and basic studies regarding the underlying mechanism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan. haniokat@college.fdcnet.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
This review evaluated evidence of the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) and dental caries in children in epidemiological studies. Relevant literature was searched and screened, and the methodological quality was assessed. The search yielded 42 citations. High-quality studies including one cohort format and 14 case-control format studies were selected. Early childhood caries was examined in 11 studies. The independent association of SHS was significant in 10 studies, and the strength was mostly weak to moderate. One study did not select SHS as a significant variable. Three studies reported decreases in the risk of previous exposure, and the association was not significant. Dose-response relationships were evident in five studies. Permanent teeth were examined in seven studies. Five studies reported significant associations, which were mostly weak. The risk of previous exposure remained similar to that of current exposure, and a dose-response relationship was not evident in one study. The overall evidence for the causal association in early childhood caries is possible regarding epidemiological studies, and the evidence of permanent teeth and the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy were insufficient. The results warrant further studies of deciduous teeth using a cohort format and basic studies regarding the underlying mechanism.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus