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Biomarkers of immunotoxicity for environmental and public health research.

Duramad P, Holland NT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: The immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases including asthma, autoimmunity and cancer.Due to the complexity and redundancy of the immune response, an integrated assessment of several components of the immune responses is needed.The rapidly expanding field of immunoinformatics will also aid in the synthesis of the vast amount of data being generated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way MS #59, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. paurened@gene.com

ABSTRACT
The immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases including asthma, autoimmunity and cancer. Application of biomarkers of immunotoxicity in epidemiology studies and human clinical trials can improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the associations between environmental exposures and development of these immune-mediated diseases. Immunological biomarkers currently used in environmental health studies include detection of key components of innate and adaptive immunity (e.g., complement, immunoglobulin and cell subsets) as well as functional responses and activation of key immune cells. The use of high-throughput assays, including flow cytometry, Luminex, and Multi-spot cytokine detection methods can further provide quantitative analysis of immune effects. Due to the complexity and redundancy of the immune response, an integrated assessment of several components of the immune responses is needed. The rapidly expanding field of immunoinformatics will also aid in the synthesis of the vast amount of data being generated. This review discusses and provides examples of how the identification and development of immunological biomarkers for use in studies of environmental exposures and immune-mediated disorders can be achieved.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Key considerations in biomarker development: identification, validation, and application.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108116&req=5

f1-ijerph-08-01388: Key considerations in biomarker development: identification, validation, and application.

Mentions: Development of disease biomarkers broadly involves the three stages of identification, validation, and application (see Figure 1) and key elements of the process include (1) identifying biomarkers that can establish relevance (i.e., related to the disease of exposure of interest), (2) strong, mechanistic molecular or biochemical basis in the pathophysiology of a disease, (3) sensitivity and specificity to treatment or exposure, (4) reliability (reproducibility, accuracy, precision, robustness), (5) practicality (level of assay invasiveness), and (6) simplicity in use and application [12,13]. Rarely does one biomarker meet all six requirements, however early consideration of these parameters in properly-designed and statistically powered studies can improve the final predictive value of biomarkers [14].


Biomarkers of immunotoxicity for environmental and public health research.

Duramad P, Holland NT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Key considerations in biomarker development: identification, validation, and application.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108116&req=5

f1-ijerph-08-01388: Key considerations in biomarker development: identification, validation, and application.
Mentions: Development of disease biomarkers broadly involves the three stages of identification, validation, and application (see Figure 1) and key elements of the process include (1) identifying biomarkers that can establish relevance (i.e., related to the disease of exposure of interest), (2) strong, mechanistic molecular or biochemical basis in the pathophysiology of a disease, (3) sensitivity and specificity to treatment or exposure, (4) reliability (reproducibility, accuracy, precision, robustness), (5) practicality (level of assay invasiveness), and (6) simplicity in use and application [12,13]. Rarely does one biomarker meet all six requirements, however early consideration of these parameters in properly-designed and statistically powered studies can improve the final predictive value of biomarkers [14].

Bottom Line: The immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases including asthma, autoimmunity and cancer.Due to the complexity and redundancy of the immune response, an integrated assessment of several components of the immune responses is needed.The rapidly expanding field of immunoinformatics will also aid in the synthesis of the vast amount of data being generated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way MS #59, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. paurened@gene.com

ABSTRACT
The immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases including asthma, autoimmunity and cancer. Application of biomarkers of immunotoxicity in epidemiology studies and human clinical trials can improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the associations between environmental exposures and development of these immune-mediated diseases. Immunological biomarkers currently used in environmental health studies include detection of key components of innate and adaptive immunity (e.g., complement, immunoglobulin and cell subsets) as well as functional responses and activation of key immune cells. The use of high-throughput assays, including flow cytometry, Luminex, and Multi-spot cytokine detection methods can further provide quantitative analysis of immune effects. Due to the complexity and redundancy of the immune response, an integrated assessment of several components of the immune responses is needed. The rapidly expanding field of immunoinformatics will also aid in the synthesis of the vast amount of data being generated. This review discusses and provides examples of how the identification and development of immunological biomarkers for use in studies of environmental exposures and immune-mediated disorders can be achieved.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus