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Membrane fusion induced by small molecules and ions.

Mondal Roy S, Sarkar M - J Lipids (2011)

Bottom Line: Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage.Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens.The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.

ABSTRACT
Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. These processes are controlled by various fusogenic agents of which proteins and peptides from the principal group. The fusion process is characterized by three major steps, namely, inter membrane contact, lipid mixing forming the intermediate step, pore opening and finally mixing of inner contents of the cells/vesicles. These steps are governed by energy barriers, which need to be overcome to complete fusion. Structural reorganization of big molecules like proteins/peptides, supplies the required driving force to overcome the energy barrier of the different intermediate steps. Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage. Hence fusion induced by small molecules/ions is expected to be different from that induced by proteins/peptides. Although several reviews exist on membrane fusion, no recent review is devoted solely to small moleculs/ions induced membrane fusion. Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens. The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question. Clearer understanding of how a particular small molecule can control fusion will open up a vista to use these moleucles instead of proteins/peptides to induce fusion both in vivo and in vitro fusion processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Oxicam NSAIDs: meloxicam (a), piroxicam (b) and tenoxicam (c).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig10: Oxicam NSAIDs: meloxicam (a), piroxicam (b) and tenoxicam (c).

Mentions: The most recent discovery in the series of small molecule fusogens are the painkillers belonging to the oxicam groups of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs were originally developed to combat pain and inflammation but have been shown to have other functions as chemopreventive and chemosupressive agents [112–114]. Three drugs belonging to the oxicam groups of NSAIDs, namely, meloxicam, piroxicam, and tenoxicam (Figure 10) are found to act as membrane fusogens [115]. They are effective fusogens not only for membrane mimetics like lipid vesicles, but also for biomembranes like mitochondrial membrane. One of the drugs, piroxicam, was found to permeabilize mitochondrial membrane in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast, at physiological concentration, leading to the release of cytochrome C in the cytosol that in turn signalled the downstream proapoptotic caspase-3 [116].


Membrane fusion induced by small molecules and ions.

Mondal Roy S, Sarkar M - J Lipids (2011)

Oxicam NSAIDs: meloxicam (a), piroxicam (b) and tenoxicam (c).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108104&req=5

fig10: Oxicam NSAIDs: meloxicam (a), piroxicam (b) and tenoxicam (c).
Mentions: The most recent discovery in the series of small molecule fusogens are the painkillers belonging to the oxicam groups of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs were originally developed to combat pain and inflammation but have been shown to have other functions as chemopreventive and chemosupressive agents [112–114]. Three drugs belonging to the oxicam groups of NSAIDs, namely, meloxicam, piroxicam, and tenoxicam (Figure 10) are found to act as membrane fusogens [115]. They are effective fusogens not only for membrane mimetics like lipid vesicles, but also for biomembranes like mitochondrial membrane. One of the drugs, piroxicam, was found to permeabilize mitochondrial membrane in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast, at physiological concentration, leading to the release of cytochrome C in the cytosol that in turn signalled the downstream proapoptotic caspase-3 [116].

Bottom Line: Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage.Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens.The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.

ABSTRACT
Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. These processes are controlled by various fusogenic agents of which proteins and peptides from the principal group. The fusion process is characterized by three major steps, namely, inter membrane contact, lipid mixing forming the intermediate step, pore opening and finally mixing of inner contents of the cells/vesicles. These steps are governed by energy barriers, which need to be overcome to complete fusion. Structural reorganization of big molecules like proteins/peptides, supplies the required driving force to overcome the energy barrier of the different intermediate steps. Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage. Hence fusion induced by small molecules/ions is expected to be different from that induced by proteins/peptides. Although several reviews exist on membrane fusion, no recent review is devoted solely to small moleculs/ions induced membrane fusion. Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens. The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question. Clearer understanding of how a particular small molecule can control fusion will open up a vista to use these moleucles instead of proteins/peptides to induce fusion both in vivo and in vitro fusion processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus