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Membrane fusion induced by small molecules and ions.

Mondal Roy S, Sarkar M - J Lipids (2011)

Bottom Line: Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage.Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens.The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.

ABSTRACT
Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. These processes are controlled by various fusogenic agents of which proteins and peptides from the principal group. The fusion process is characterized by three major steps, namely, inter membrane contact, lipid mixing forming the intermediate step, pore opening and finally mixing of inner contents of the cells/vesicles. These steps are governed by energy barriers, which need to be overcome to complete fusion. Structural reorganization of big molecules like proteins/peptides, supplies the required driving force to overcome the energy barrier of the different intermediate steps. Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage. Hence fusion induced by small molecules/ions is expected to be different from that induced by proteins/peptides. Although several reviews exist on membrane fusion, no recent review is devoted solely to small moleculs/ions induced membrane fusion. Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens. The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question. Clearer understanding of how a particular small molecule can control fusion will open up a vista to use these moleucles instead of proteins/peptides to induce fusion both in vivo and in vitro fusion processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

n-hexyl bromide.
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fig6: n-hexyl bromide.

Mentions: During the early eighties, small molecules belonging to the n-alkyl bromide group [CnH2n+1Br; n ≥ 6] was found to act as fusogenic agents. Among them n-hexyl bromide (Figure 6; n = 6), octyl bromide (n = 8), and decyl bromide (n = 10) are known to have the desired fusogenic property [94]. These molecules can induce fusion at a very low molecule-to-lipid ratio (M : L) of 0.05 (for n = 6) [95], and they can induce cellular or subcellular membrane fusion [96] along with the fusion of biomimetics like PC-phosphatidic acid (PC : PA) mixed vesicles. Multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) of PC or PC : PA mixed lipids are used for experiments. Electron microscopy and freeze fracture microscopy images are shown to prove the successful completion of the fusion process [95]. Moreover, incorporation of very low amount of these organic molecules, for example, about 2.5 μM of n-hexyl bromide/50 μM lipid/mL does not alter the constitution, cell viability, or the ion transport properties of the membranes [95]. The fusion of vesicles was shown by electron microscopy images. A significant increase in the size of the vesicles due to the incorporation of n-hexyl bromide was shown [94, 95] as proof of fusion.


Membrane fusion induced by small molecules and ions.

Mondal Roy S, Sarkar M - J Lipids (2011)

n-hexyl bromide.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108104&req=5

fig6: n-hexyl bromide.
Mentions: During the early eighties, small molecules belonging to the n-alkyl bromide group [CnH2n+1Br; n ≥ 6] was found to act as fusogenic agents. Among them n-hexyl bromide (Figure 6; n = 6), octyl bromide (n = 8), and decyl bromide (n = 10) are known to have the desired fusogenic property [94]. These molecules can induce fusion at a very low molecule-to-lipid ratio (M : L) of 0.05 (for n = 6) [95], and they can induce cellular or subcellular membrane fusion [96] along with the fusion of biomimetics like PC-phosphatidic acid (PC : PA) mixed vesicles. Multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) of PC or PC : PA mixed lipids are used for experiments. Electron microscopy and freeze fracture microscopy images are shown to prove the successful completion of the fusion process [95]. Moreover, incorporation of very low amount of these organic molecules, for example, about 2.5 μM of n-hexyl bromide/50 μM lipid/mL does not alter the constitution, cell viability, or the ion transport properties of the membranes [95]. The fusion of vesicles was shown by electron microscopy images. A significant increase in the size of the vesicles due to the incorporation of n-hexyl bromide was shown [94, 95] as proof of fusion.

Bottom Line: Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage.Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens.The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.

ABSTRACT
Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. These processes are controlled by various fusogenic agents of which proteins and peptides from the principal group. The fusion process is characterized by three major steps, namely, inter membrane contact, lipid mixing forming the intermediate step, pore opening and finally mixing of inner contents of the cells/vesicles. These steps are governed by energy barriers, which need to be overcome to complete fusion. Structural reorganization of big molecules like proteins/peptides, supplies the required driving force to overcome the energy barrier of the different intermediate steps. Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage. Hence fusion induced by small molecules/ions is expected to be different from that induced by proteins/peptides. Although several reviews exist on membrane fusion, no recent review is devoted solely to small moleculs/ions induced membrane fusion. Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens. The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question. Clearer understanding of how a particular small molecule can control fusion will open up a vista to use these moleucles instead of proteins/peptides to induce fusion both in vivo and in vitro fusion processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus