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Membrane fusion induced by small molecules and ions.

Mondal Roy S, Sarkar M - J Lipids (2011)

Bottom Line: Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage.Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens.The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.

ABSTRACT
Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. These processes are controlled by various fusogenic agents of which proteins and peptides from the principal group. The fusion process is characterized by three major steps, namely, inter membrane contact, lipid mixing forming the intermediate step, pore opening and finally mixing of inner contents of the cells/vesicles. These steps are governed by energy barriers, which need to be overcome to complete fusion. Structural reorganization of big molecules like proteins/peptides, supplies the required driving force to overcome the energy barrier of the different intermediate steps. Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage. Hence fusion induced by small molecules/ions is expected to be different from that induced by proteins/peptides. Although several reviews exist on membrane fusion, no recent review is devoted solely to small moleculs/ions induced membrane fusion. Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens. The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question. Clearer understanding of how a particular small molecule can control fusion will open up a vista to use these moleucles instead of proteins/peptides to induce fusion both in vivo and in vitro fusion processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Different phases of lipid: (a) lamellar (L) phase and (b)  inverted hexagonal (HII) phase.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Different phases of lipid: (a) lamellar (L) phase and (b) inverted hexagonal (HII) phase.

Mentions: After the close contact of the two approaching membranes or lipid bilayers, a temporary disorder of the bilayer lipids in the contact region is required for vesicular merging. There are several ways to achieve this. The lipid composition of the vesicles plays a crucial role during the merging of membranes. According to a school of thought [19], during the merging of lipids, considerable amount of lipids undergo a transition from lamellar bilayer phase (L) to inverted hexagonal phase (HII) (Figure 2) [20] at the contact site. It has been proposed that, the transition from L → HII is essential for the successful mixing of the outer bilayer of lipids to promote fusion. There are several inverted hexagonal phase forming lipids, namely, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [21] and cardiolipin [22] which influence the required structural/orientation change of the lipid molecules during merging. There are a number of molecules like drugs [23], surfactants [24], solvents [25], and metabolites [26] which can influence the L → HII phase transition and thereby have the propensity to act as fusogens.


Membrane fusion induced by small molecules and ions.

Mondal Roy S, Sarkar M - J Lipids (2011)

Different phases of lipid: (a) lamellar (L) phase and (b)  inverted hexagonal (HII) phase.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3108104&req=5

fig2: Different phases of lipid: (a) lamellar (L) phase and (b) inverted hexagonal (HII) phase.
Mentions: After the close contact of the two approaching membranes or lipid bilayers, a temporary disorder of the bilayer lipids in the contact region is required for vesicular merging. There are several ways to achieve this. The lipid composition of the vesicles plays a crucial role during the merging of membranes. According to a school of thought [19], during the merging of lipids, considerable amount of lipids undergo a transition from lamellar bilayer phase (L) to inverted hexagonal phase (HII) (Figure 2) [20] at the contact site. It has been proposed that, the transition from L → HII is essential for the successful mixing of the outer bilayer of lipids to promote fusion. There are several inverted hexagonal phase forming lipids, namely, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [21] and cardiolipin [22] which influence the required structural/orientation change of the lipid molecules during merging. There are a number of molecules like drugs [23], surfactants [24], solvents [25], and metabolites [26] which can influence the L → HII phase transition and thereby have the propensity to act as fusogens.

Bottom Line: Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage.Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens.The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.

ABSTRACT
Membrane fusion is a key event in many biological processes. These processes are controlled by various fusogenic agents of which proteins and peptides from the principal group. The fusion process is characterized by three major steps, namely, inter membrane contact, lipid mixing forming the intermediate step, pore opening and finally mixing of inner contents of the cells/vesicles. These steps are governed by energy barriers, which need to be overcome to complete fusion. Structural reorganization of big molecules like proteins/peptides, supplies the required driving force to overcome the energy barrier of the different intermediate steps. Small molecules/ions do not share this advantage. Hence fusion induced by small molecules/ions is expected to be different from that induced by proteins/peptides. Although several reviews exist on membrane fusion, no recent review is devoted solely to small moleculs/ions induced membrane fusion. Here we intend to present, how a variety of small molecules/ions act as independent fusogens. The detailed mechanism of some are well understood but for many it is still an unanswered question. Clearer understanding of how a particular small molecule can control fusion will open up a vista to use these moleucles instead of proteins/peptides to induce fusion both in vivo and in vitro fusion processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus