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Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005.

Lawrence D, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR - BMC Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers.However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, P.O. Box 855, West Perth, WA, 6872, Australia. dlawrence@ichr.uwa.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders.

Methods: We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6) scores and duration of mental illness.

Results: The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.

Conclusions: The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

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Australian Adults with ICD-10 depressive or anxiety disorders - time since onset of symptoms by level of non-specific psychological distress, Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.
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Figure 2: Australian Adults with ICD-10 depressive or anxiety disorders - time since onset of symptoms by level of non-specific psychological distress, Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

Mentions: For Australian adults who were diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorders in the NSMHWB, the survey ascertained date of first onset of symptoms. For those adults with high or very high K6 scores who were given an ICD-10 diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder, the vast majority had first onset of disorder more than 10 years prior to the survey. Less than 10% reported onset within two years of the survey. Even though the K6 questions ask about the 30 days prior to the survey, the vast majority of people with disorders reporting high levels of psychological distress have had their disorder for many years. Among people with K6 scores in the range 13-24, 90.2% (95% CI: 84.5%-95.8%) had first onset of symptoms more than 5 years prior to the survey. Among individuals with K6 scores in the range 8-12, 88.9% (95% CI: 84.1%-93.7%) had first onset more than 5 years prior to the survey, and among those with K6 scores in the range 3-7, 80.9% (95% CI: 77.5%-84.4%) had first onset more than 5 years prior to the survey (Figure 2).


Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005.

Lawrence D, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR - BMC Public Health (2011)

Australian Adults with ICD-10 depressive or anxiety disorders - time since onset of symptoms by level of non-specific psychological distress, Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3107796&req=5

Figure 2: Australian Adults with ICD-10 depressive or anxiety disorders - time since onset of symptoms by level of non-specific psychological distress, Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.
Mentions: For Australian adults who were diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorders in the NSMHWB, the survey ascertained date of first onset of symptoms. For those adults with high or very high K6 scores who were given an ICD-10 diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder, the vast majority had first onset of disorder more than 10 years prior to the survey. Less than 10% reported onset within two years of the survey. Even though the K6 questions ask about the 30 days prior to the survey, the vast majority of people with disorders reporting high levels of psychological distress have had their disorder for many years. Among people with K6 scores in the range 13-24, 90.2% (95% CI: 84.5%-95.8%) had first onset of symptoms more than 5 years prior to the survey. Among individuals with K6 scores in the range 8-12, 88.9% (95% CI: 84.1%-93.7%) had first onset more than 5 years prior to the survey, and among those with K6 scores in the range 3-7, 80.9% (95% CI: 77.5%-84.4%) had first onset more than 5 years prior to the survey (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers.However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, P.O. Box 855, West Perth, WA, 6872, Australia. dlawrence@ichr.uwa.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders.

Methods: We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6) scores and duration of mental illness.

Results: The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.

Conclusions: The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus