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Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005.

Lawrence D, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR - BMC Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers.However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, P.O. Box 855, West Perth, WA, 6872, Australia. dlawrence@ichr.uwa.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders.

Methods: We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6) scores and duration of mental illness.

Results: The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.

Conclusions: The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Screening process used to select former smokers who quit within the last two years and current smokers with a recent failed quit attempt, US National Health Interview Survey.
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Figure 1: Screening process used to select former smokers who quit within the last two years and current smokers with a recent failed quit attempt, US National Health Interview Survey.

Mentions: To examine the relationship between outcome of smoking cessation attempts, psychological distress and socio-demographic characteristics, we selected a cohort comprising recent successful quitters (those who reported having quit smoking 7-24 months prior to the survey, and who had not relapsed in that time) with current smokers who had unsuccessfully attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months. Respondents were asked "Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?", and if yes, "Do you now smoke cigarettes every day, some days, or not at all?" Respondents who said they smoked every day or some days were asked "During the past 12 months, have you stopped smoking for more than 1 day because you were trying to quit smoking?" Those that said yes were identified as the group of current smokers with a recent unsuccessful quit attempt. Respondents who don't currently smoke were asked "How long has it been since you quit smoking cigarettes?" Those who responded by choosing the category 7-24 months were identified as the group comprising recent successful quitters. The screening process used to define these two groups is illustrated in Figure 1. Because of the categories used in the NHIS the reference time periods for the two categories are slightly different, with current smokers with a recent unsuccessful quit attempt having attempted to quit smoking in the last 12 months, while recent successful quitters had quit smoking 7-24 months prior to the survey. A longer duration is required to define successful smoking cessation than relapse to smoking after a quit attempt.


Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005.

Lawrence D, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR - BMC Public Health (2011)

Screening process used to select former smokers who quit within the last two years and current smokers with a recent failed quit attempt, US National Health Interview Survey.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3107796&req=5

Figure 1: Screening process used to select former smokers who quit within the last two years and current smokers with a recent failed quit attempt, US National Health Interview Survey.
Mentions: To examine the relationship between outcome of smoking cessation attempts, psychological distress and socio-demographic characteristics, we selected a cohort comprising recent successful quitters (those who reported having quit smoking 7-24 months prior to the survey, and who had not relapsed in that time) with current smokers who had unsuccessfully attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months. Respondents were asked "Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?", and if yes, "Do you now smoke cigarettes every day, some days, or not at all?" Respondents who said they smoked every day or some days were asked "During the past 12 months, have you stopped smoking for more than 1 day because you were trying to quit smoking?" Those that said yes were identified as the group of current smokers with a recent unsuccessful quit attempt. Respondents who don't currently smoke were asked "How long has it been since you quit smoking cigarettes?" Those who responded by choosing the category 7-24 months were identified as the group comprising recent successful quitters. The screening process used to define these two groups is illustrated in Figure 1. Because of the categories used in the NHIS the reference time periods for the two categories are slightly different, with current smokers with a recent unsuccessful quit attempt having attempted to quit smoking in the last 12 months, while recent successful quitters had quit smoking 7-24 months prior to the survey. A longer duration is required to define successful smoking cessation than relapse to smoking after a quit attempt.

Bottom Line: We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers.However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, P.O. Box 855, West Perth, WA, 6872, Australia. dlawrence@ichr.uwa.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders.

Methods: We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6) scores and duration of mental illness.

Results: The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking.

Conclusions: The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus