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Prevalence of Ehrlichia muris in Wisconsin Deer Ticks Collected During the Mid 1990s.

Telford Iii SR, Goethert HK, Cunningham JA - Open Microbiol J (2011)

Bottom Line: Based on a hypothesis for the biogeography of deer tick transmitted infections, we undertook a focused search for the Eurasian E. muris in North American deer ticks.About 1% of 760 adult deer ticks collected from Spooner, Wisconsin in the 1990s contained E. muris DNA.We conclude that E. muris was present in North American deer ticks a decade ago and is likely to infect this human biting vector elsewhere in the U.S. Biogeographic theory and molecular phylogenetic methods can facilitate a targeted search for potential zoonoses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tufts University, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

ABSTRACT
Human ehrlichiosis is due to infection by tick transmitted bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia. Based on a hypothesis for the biogeography of deer tick transmitted infections, we undertook a focused search for the Eurasian E. muris in North American deer ticks. The search was stimulated by anecdotal reports of E. muris-like infection in human ehrlichiosis patients from Wisconsin. We analyzed archived adult deer ticks collected in northern Wisconsin during the 1990s by specific polymerase chain reaction for evidence of infection, and sequenced amplification products to identify E. muris. About 1% of 760 adult deer ticks collected from Spooner, Wisconsin in the 1990s contained E. muris DNA. We conclude that E. muris was present in North American deer ticks a decade ago and is likely to infect this human biting vector elsewhere in the U.S. Biogeographic theory and molecular phylogenetic methods can facilitate a targeted search for potential zoonoses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia sp. DNA amplified from archived adult deer ticks collected in Spooner, Wisconsin during 1992-1997. DNA sequences of other Ehrlichia spp. were downloaded from NCBI Genbank, aligned using ClustalW, and then adjusted by eye using GeneDoc. MEGA was used to generate neighbor-joining trees for citrate synthase (left panel) and groesl (right panel) sequences using the Kimura 2-parameter model. 500 bootstrap replicates were done to assess the stability of the resulting branch nodes.
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Figure 1: Phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia sp. DNA amplified from archived adult deer ticks collected in Spooner, Wisconsin during 1992-1997. DNA sequences of other Ehrlichia spp. were downloaded from NCBI Genbank, aligned using ClustalW, and then adjusted by eye using GeneDoc. MEGA was used to generate neighbor-joining trees for citrate synthase (left panel) and groesl (right panel) sequences using the Kimura 2-parameter model. 500 bootstrap replicates were done to assess the stability of the resulting branch nodes.

Mentions: Of 760 ticks, 7 (maximum likelihood estimate of prevalence for pooled samples 0.94% [95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.9]) tested positive for E. muris-specific DNA. Phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 1) demonstrates that the sequences we detected (GenBank submissions HQ660491-HQ660497) in the Spooner ticks clustered with those from Eurasian E. muris, and we conservatively interpret the small degree of nucleotide difference as due to geographic variation as opposed to evidence for a “new” agent. We analyzed 670 of the 760 ticks for A. phagocytophilum DNA and 3 were considered positive (MLE 0.45% [0.12, 1.2]). It is likely that the mode of storage (desiccation) diminished sensitivity of the assays because we previously reported a prevalence of about 4% (by microscopy) for A. phagocytophilum from the Spooner site [14]; thus, the prevalence of E. muris is likely greater.


Prevalence of Ehrlichia muris in Wisconsin Deer Ticks Collected During the Mid 1990s.

Telford Iii SR, Goethert HK, Cunningham JA - Open Microbiol J (2011)

Phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia sp. DNA amplified from archived adult deer ticks collected in Spooner, Wisconsin during 1992-1997. DNA sequences of other Ehrlichia spp. were downloaded from NCBI Genbank, aligned using ClustalW, and then adjusted by eye using GeneDoc. MEGA was used to generate neighbor-joining trees for citrate synthase (left panel) and groesl (right panel) sequences using the Kimura 2-parameter model. 500 bootstrap replicates were done to assess the stability of the resulting branch nodes.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3106336&req=5

Figure 1: Phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia sp. DNA amplified from archived adult deer ticks collected in Spooner, Wisconsin during 1992-1997. DNA sequences of other Ehrlichia spp. were downloaded from NCBI Genbank, aligned using ClustalW, and then adjusted by eye using GeneDoc. MEGA was used to generate neighbor-joining trees for citrate synthase (left panel) and groesl (right panel) sequences using the Kimura 2-parameter model. 500 bootstrap replicates were done to assess the stability of the resulting branch nodes.
Mentions: Of 760 ticks, 7 (maximum likelihood estimate of prevalence for pooled samples 0.94% [95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.9]) tested positive for E. muris-specific DNA. Phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 1) demonstrates that the sequences we detected (GenBank submissions HQ660491-HQ660497) in the Spooner ticks clustered with those from Eurasian E. muris, and we conservatively interpret the small degree of nucleotide difference as due to geographic variation as opposed to evidence for a “new” agent. We analyzed 670 of the 760 ticks for A. phagocytophilum DNA and 3 were considered positive (MLE 0.45% [0.12, 1.2]). It is likely that the mode of storage (desiccation) diminished sensitivity of the assays because we previously reported a prevalence of about 4% (by microscopy) for A. phagocytophilum from the Spooner site [14]; thus, the prevalence of E. muris is likely greater.

Bottom Line: Based on a hypothesis for the biogeography of deer tick transmitted infections, we undertook a focused search for the Eurasian E. muris in North American deer ticks.About 1% of 760 adult deer ticks collected from Spooner, Wisconsin in the 1990s contained E. muris DNA.We conclude that E. muris was present in North American deer ticks a decade ago and is likely to infect this human biting vector elsewhere in the U.S. Biogeographic theory and molecular phylogenetic methods can facilitate a targeted search for potential zoonoses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tufts University, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

ABSTRACT
Human ehrlichiosis is due to infection by tick transmitted bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia. Based on a hypothesis for the biogeography of deer tick transmitted infections, we undertook a focused search for the Eurasian E. muris in North American deer ticks. The search was stimulated by anecdotal reports of E. muris-like infection in human ehrlichiosis patients from Wisconsin. We analyzed archived adult deer ticks collected in northern Wisconsin during the 1990s by specific polymerase chain reaction for evidence of infection, and sequenced amplification products to identify E. muris. About 1% of 760 adult deer ticks collected from Spooner, Wisconsin in the 1990s contained E. muris DNA. We conclude that E. muris was present in North American deer ticks a decade ago and is likely to infect this human biting vector elsewhere in the U.S. Biogeographic theory and molecular phylogenetic methods can facilitate a targeted search for potential zoonoses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus