Limits...
Visual advantage in deaf adults linked to retinal changes.

Codina C, Pascalis O, Mody C, Toomey P, Rose J, Gummer L, Buckley D - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Deaf adults also showed a significantly different pattern of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) distribution compared to controls.Significant correlations between the depth of the RNFL at the inferior-nasal peripapillary retina and the corresponding far temporal and superior temporal visual field areas (sensitivity) were found.Our results show that cross-modal plasticity after early onset deafness may not be limited to the sensory cortices, noting specific retinal adaptations in early onset deaf adults which are significantly correlated with peripheral vision sensitivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Academic Unit of Ophthalmology and Orthoptics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. C.Codina@Sheffield.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The altered sensory experience of profound early onset deafness provokes sometimes large scale neural reorganisations. In particular, auditory-visual cross-modal plasticity occurs, wherein redundant auditory cortex becomes recruited to vision. However, the effect of human deafness on neural structures involved in visual processing prior to the visual cortex has never been investigated, either in humans or animals. We investigated neural changes at the retina and optic nerve head in profoundly deaf (N = 14) and hearing (N = 15) adults using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), an in-vivo light interference method of quantifying retinal micro-structure. We compared retinal changes with behavioural results from the same deaf and hearing adults, measuring sensitivity in the peripheral visual field using Goldmann perimetry. Deaf adults had significantly larger neural rim areas, within the optic nerve head in comparison to hearing controls suggesting greater retinal ganglion cell number. Deaf adults also demonstrated significantly larger visual field areas (indicating greater peripheral sensitivity) than controls. Furthermore, neural rim area was significantly correlated with visual field area in both deaf and hearing adults. Deaf adults also showed a significantly different pattern of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) distribution compared to controls. Significant correlations between the depth of the RNFL at the inferior-nasal peripapillary retina and the corresponding far temporal and superior temporal visual field areas (sensitivity) were found. Our results show that cross-modal plasticity after early onset deafness may not be limited to the sensory cortices, noting specific retinal adaptations in early onset deaf adults which are significantly correlated with peripheral vision sensitivity.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Optic nerve neural rim and visual field area correlations for deaf and hearing participants.Square root of the neural rim area is shown on the x axes for deaf participants (blue symbols) and hearing participants (red symbols) for a.) mid-peripheral visual field (2Ie Goldmann stimulus, area 0.25 mm2 , luminance 20 cd/m2) and b.) far-peripheral field (4Ie stimulus, area 0.25 mm2, luminance 328 cd/m2).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105994&req=5

pone-0020417-g003: Optic nerve neural rim and visual field area correlations for deaf and hearing participants.Square root of the neural rim area is shown on the x axes for deaf participants (blue symbols) and hearing participants (red symbols) for a.) mid-peripheral visual field (2Ie Goldmann stimulus, area 0.25 mm2 , luminance 20 cd/m2) and b.) far-peripheral field (4Ie stimulus, area 0.25 mm2, luminance 328 cd/m2).

Mentions: Using root squared raw data we plotted individuals' neural rim area (x axes) against visual field area (y axes) for both the mid-peripheral visual field and far-peripheral visual field areas and applied linear regressions to both. As can be seen in Figure 3, the deaf (blue plots) had both larger neural rim areas and larger visual field areas than the hearing participants (red plots). The two variables were positively correlated with significant correlation for neural rim area and mid-peripheral Goldmann visual field area (r2 = 0.303, p = 0.018) (Figure 3a) and significant for the far-peripheral Goldmann peripheral field (r2 = 0.240, p = 0.039) (Figure 3b). There were no significant correlations using the other optic nerve head measures of cup or disc area with the mid- or far-peripheral visual field (largest r2 = 0.083).


Visual advantage in deaf adults linked to retinal changes.

Codina C, Pascalis O, Mody C, Toomey P, Rose J, Gummer L, Buckley D - PLoS ONE (2011)

Optic nerve neural rim and visual field area correlations for deaf and hearing participants.Square root of the neural rim area is shown on the x axes for deaf participants (blue symbols) and hearing participants (red symbols) for a.) mid-peripheral visual field (2Ie Goldmann stimulus, area 0.25 mm2 , luminance 20 cd/m2) and b.) far-peripheral field (4Ie stimulus, area 0.25 mm2, luminance 328 cd/m2).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105994&req=5

pone-0020417-g003: Optic nerve neural rim and visual field area correlations for deaf and hearing participants.Square root of the neural rim area is shown on the x axes for deaf participants (blue symbols) and hearing participants (red symbols) for a.) mid-peripheral visual field (2Ie Goldmann stimulus, area 0.25 mm2 , luminance 20 cd/m2) and b.) far-peripheral field (4Ie stimulus, area 0.25 mm2, luminance 328 cd/m2).
Mentions: Using root squared raw data we plotted individuals' neural rim area (x axes) against visual field area (y axes) for both the mid-peripheral visual field and far-peripheral visual field areas and applied linear regressions to both. As can be seen in Figure 3, the deaf (blue plots) had both larger neural rim areas and larger visual field areas than the hearing participants (red plots). The two variables were positively correlated with significant correlation for neural rim area and mid-peripheral Goldmann visual field area (r2 = 0.303, p = 0.018) (Figure 3a) and significant for the far-peripheral Goldmann peripheral field (r2 = 0.240, p = 0.039) (Figure 3b). There were no significant correlations using the other optic nerve head measures of cup or disc area with the mid- or far-peripheral visual field (largest r2 = 0.083).

Bottom Line: Deaf adults also showed a significantly different pattern of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) distribution compared to controls.Significant correlations between the depth of the RNFL at the inferior-nasal peripapillary retina and the corresponding far temporal and superior temporal visual field areas (sensitivity) were found.Our results show that cross-modal plasticity after early onset deafness may not be limited to the sensory cortices, noting specific retinal adaptations in early onset deaf adults which are significantly correlated with peripheral vision sensitivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Academic Unit of Ophthalmology and Orthoptics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. C.Codina@Sheffield.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The altered sensory experience of profound early onset deafness provokes sometimes large scale neural reorganisations. In particular, auditory-visual cross-modal plasticity occurs, wherein redundant auditory cortex becomes recruited to vision. However, the effect of human deafness on neural structures involved in visual processing prior to the visual cortex has never been investigated, either in humans or animals. We investigated neural changes at the retina and optic nerve head in profoundly deaf (N = 14) and hearing (N = 15) adults using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), an in-vivo light interference method of quantifying retinal micro-structure. We compared retinal changes with behavioural results from the same deaf and hearing adults, measuring sensitivity in the peripheral visual field using Goldmann perimetry. Deaf adults had significantly larger neural rim areas, within the optic nerve head in comparison to hearing controls suggesting greater retinal ganglion cell number. Deaf adults also demonstrated significantly larger visual field areas (indicating greater peripheral sensitivity) than controls. Furthermore, neural rim area was significantly correlated with visual field area in both deaf and hearing adults. Deaf adults also showed a significantly different pattern of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) distribution compared to controls. Significant correlations between the depth of the RNFL at the inferior-nasal peripapillary retina and the corresponding far temporal and superior temporal visual field areas (sensitivity) were found. Our results show that cross-modal plasticity after early onset deafness may not be limited to the sensory cortices, noting specific retinal adaptations in early onset deaf adults which are significantly correlated with peripheral vision sensitivity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus