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Sponge mass mortalities in a warming Mediterranean Sea: are cyanobacteria-harboring species worse off?

Cebrian E, Uriz MJ, Garrabou J, Ballesteros E - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: A laboratory experiment confirmed that the cyanobacteria harbored by I. fasciculata displayed a significant reduction in photosynthetic efficiency in the highest temperature treatment.The sponge disease reported here led to a severe decrease in the abundance of the surveyed populations.It represents one of the most dramatic mass mortality events to date in the Mediterranean Sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universitat de Girona, Facultat de Ciències, Departament de Ciències Ambientals, Girona, Spain. emma.cebrian@udg.edu

ABSTRACT
Mass mortality events are increasing dramatically in all coastal marine environments. Determining the underlying causes of mass mortality events has proven difficult in the past because of the lack of prior quantitative data on populations and environmental variables. Four-year surveys of two shallow-water sponge species, Ircinia fasciculata and Sarcotragus spinosulum, were carried out in the western Mediterranean Sea. These surveys provided evidence of two severe sponge die-offs (total mortality ranging from 80 to 95% of specimens) occurring in the summers of 2008 and 2009. These events primarily affected I. fasciculata, which hosts both phototrophic and heterotrophic microsymbionts, while they did not affect S. spinosulum, which harbors only heterotrophic bacteria. We observed a significant positive correlation between the percentage of injured I. fasciculata specimens and exposure time to elevated temperature conditions in all populations, suggesting a key role of temperature in triggering mortality events. A comparative ultrastructural study of injured and healthy I. fasciculata specimens showed that cyanobacteria disappeared from injured specimens, which suggests that cyanobacterial decay could be involved in I. fasciculata mortality. A laboratory experiment confirmed that the cyanobacteria harbored by I. fasciculata displayed a significant reduction in photosynthetic efficiency in the highest temperature treatment. The sponge disease reported here led to a severe decrease in the abundance of the surveyed populations. It represents one of the most dramatic mass mortality events to date in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Several ultrastructural aspects of a healthy Ircinia fasciculata.A) Archeocyte of a subectosomal zone, surrounded by numerous cyanobacteria (c) and some heterotrophic bacteria (h); B) Detail of a healthy cyanobacteria, close to an archeocyte plenty of glycogen rosettes (g); C) “symbiotic” bacterial community, typically found in the sponge; D) collagen layer (co) between endopinacocytes (pi) separating two choanocyte chambers (ch: choanocytes); E) collagen bundles, surrounded by endopinacocytes (pi); F) basal section of a choanocyte, full of heterogeneous phagosomes (ph), which is characteristic of the species (n: nucleus).
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pone-0020211-g003: Several ultrastructural aspects of a healthy Ircinia fasciculata.A) Archeocyte of a subectosomal zone, surrounded by numerous cyanobacteria (c) and some heterotrophic bacteria (h); B) Detail of a healthy cyanobacteria, close to an archeocyte plenty of glycogen rosettes (g); C) “symbiotic” bacterial community, typically found in the sponge; D) collagen layer (co) between endopinacocytes (pi) separating two choanocyte chambers (ch: choanocytes); E) collagen bundles, surrounded by endopinacocytes (pi); F) basal section of a choanocyte, full of heterogeneous phagosomes (ph), which is characteristic of the species (n: nucleus).

Mentions: TEM observation of spotted (death) areas, zones in close vicinity to the spots, and healthy zones of I. fasciculata showed remarkable differences at an ultrastructural level. Healthy zones contained healthy cyanobacteria (Fig. 3a, b), heterotrophic “symbiotic” bacteria (Fig 3c), abundant collagen bundles (Fig. 3d, e) and choanocytes with huge amounts of phagosomes (Fig. 3f). Copepod exoskeletons, semi-digested heterotrophic bacteria, and muscle tissue, were among the identifiable materials within choanocyte phagosomes.


Sponge mass mortalities in a warming Mediterranean Sea: are cyanobacteria-harboring species worse off?

Cebrian E, Uriz MJ, Garrabou J, Ballesteros E - PLoS ONE (2011)

Several ultrastructural aspects of a healthy Ircinia fasciculata.A) Archeocyte of a subectosomal zone, surrounded by numerous cyanobacteria (c) and some heterotrophic bacteria (h); B) Detail of a healthy cyanobacteria, close to an archeocyte plenty of glycogen rosettes (g); C) “symbiotic” bacterial community, typically found in the sponge; D) collagen layer (co) between endopinacocytes (pi) separating two choanocyte chambers (ch: choanocytes); E) collagen bundles, surrounded by endopinacocytes (pi); F) basal section of a choanocyte, full of heterogeneous phagosomes (ph), which is characteristic of the species (n: nucleus).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3105983&req=5

pone-0020211-g003: Several ultrastructural aspects of a healthy Ircinia fasciculata.A) Archeocyte of a subectosomal zone, surrounded by numerous cyanobacteria (c) and some heterotrophic bacteria (h); B) Detail of a healthy cyanobacteria, close to an archeocyte plenty of glycogen rosettes (g); C) “symbiotic” bacterial community, typically found in the sponge; D) collagen layer (co) between endopinacocytes (pi) separating two choanocyte chambers (ch: choanocytes); E) collagen bundles, surrounded by endopinacocytes (pi); F) basal section of a choanocyte, full of heterogeneous phagosomes (ph), which is characteristic of the species (n: nucleus).
Mentions: TEM observation of spotted (death) areas, zones in close vicinity to the spots, and healthy zones of I. fasciculata showed remarkable differences at an ultrastructural level. Healthy zones contained healthy cyanobacteria (Fig. 3a, b), heterotrophic “symbiotic” bacteria (Fig 3c), abundant collagen bundles (Fig. 3d, e) and choanocytes with huge amounts of phagosomes (Fig. 3f). Copepod exoskeletons, semi-digested heterotrophic bacteria, and muscle tissue, were among the identifiable materials within choanocyte phagosomes.

Bottom Line: A laboratory experiment confirmed that the cyanobacteria harbored by I. fasciculata displayed a significant reduction in photosynthetic efficiency in the highest temperature treatment.The sponge disease reported here led to a severe decrease in the abundance of the surveyed populations.It represents one of the most dramatic mass mortality events to date in the Mediterranean Sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universitat de Girona, Facultat de Ciències, Departament de Ciències Ambientals, Girona, Spain. emma.cebrian@udg.edu

ABSTRACT
Mass mortality events are increasing dramatically in all coastal marine environments. Determining the underlying causes of mass mortality events has proven difficult in the past because of the lack of prior quantitative data on populations and environmental variables. Four-year surveys of two shallow-water sponge species, Ircinia fasciculata and Sarcotragus spinosulum, were carried out in the western Mediterranean Sea. These surveys provided evidence of two severe sponge die-offs (total mortality ranging from 80 to 95% of specimens) occurring in the summers of 2008 and 2009. These events primarily affected I. fasciculata, which hosts both phototrophic and heterotrophic microsymbionts, while they did not affect S. spinosulum, which harbors only heterotrophic bacteria. We observed a significant positive correlation between the percentage of injured I. fasciculata specimens and exposure time to elevated temperature conditions in all populations, suggesting a key role of temperature in triggering mortality events. A comparative ultrastructural study of injured and healthy I. fasciculata specimens showed that cyanobacteria disappeared from injured specimens, which suggests that cyanobacterial decay could be involved in I. fasciculata mortality. A laboratory experiment confirmed that the cyanobacteria harbored by I. fasciculata displayed a significant reduction in photosynthetic efficiency in the highest temperature treatment. The sponge disease reported here led to a severe decrease in the abundance of the surveyed populations. It represents one of the most dramatic mass mortality events to date in the Mediterranean Sea.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus